黄瓜矮生突变体C1056的茎解剖结构及其生理特性分析
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引用本文:刘梦迎,王 金,牛毅男,靳卓帅,刘 朋,张馨瑜,李玉红.黄瓜矮生突变体C1056的茎解剖结构及其生理特性分析[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(3):445~452
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刘梦迎,王 金,牛毅男,靳卓帅,刘 朋,张馨瑜,李玉红* (西北农林科技大学 园艺学院陕西杨陵 712100) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31471891,31772300)
中文摘要:该研究以黄瓜矮生突变体C1056和野生型CCMC为材料,对其主要生理特性、叶绿体超微结构以及茎显微结构进行了观察、测定和比较分析,以探讨黄瓜株高调控机理并挖掘新的矮化种质,为黄瓜的矮化育种提供依据。结果显示:(1)突变体C1056的株高较野生型极显著变矮,且叶色加深、叶脉加粗、叶尖内卷、叶片皱缩,但茎粗、节间数与野生型无显著差异,而节间长度极显著低于野生型。(2)茎横切显微结构显示,突变体的维管束数量与野生型无显著差异,但导管直径缩小;纵切结果显示,突变体茎节间细胞长度变短,细胞变小,细胞数目略有补偿。(3)与野生型相比,突变体的叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量均有不同程度的下降,叶绿素/类胡萝卜素和叶绿素a/b的比值明显增高。(4)突变体叶绿素荧光各参数与野生型相比无明显变化;突变体的净光合速率较野生型降低8%,气孔导度、蒸腾速率较野生型分别提高15%和10%,但差异均不显著,而胞间CO2浓度显著高于野生型。(5)透射电镜观察结果发现,与野生型相比,突变体的叶肉细胞比较小,叶绿体所占细胞面积明增大,且叶绿体形状为半圆形和纺锤形,部分非正常结构的叶绿体的大部分基质、基粒片层未完全分化且不清晰,垛叠不整齐。研究表明,黄瓜矮生突变体C1056的矮化主要因其节间长度缩短以及细胞变小所致,且突变体的叶绿体结构受到一定程度的影响,但并未明显影响其光合能力。
中文关键词:黄瓜  矮化突变体  生理特性分析  显微结构观察
 
Stem Anatomic Structure and Physiological Characteristic Analysis of Cucumber Dwarf Mutant C1056
Abstract:In this study, we compared and measured the main physiological characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and stem microstructure between dwarf mutant C1056 and wild type CCMC, so as to explore the plant height regulation mechanism of cucumber, excavate new dwarf germplasm, and provide basis for dwarf breeding of cucumber. The results showed that: (1) the mutant C1056 had significantly shorter plant height, darker leaf color, thickened veins, curled leaf tips, wrinkled and shrunk leaves. There was no significant difference in stem diameter, internode number between mutant and wild type, but the internode length of mutant was extremely obviously shorter than wild type. (2) The stem transverse microstructure showed that the number of mutant vascular bundle was not significantly different from the wild type, while the vessel diameter was reduced. The stem longitudinal section showed that the internode cell became significantly shorter and smaller than that of wild type, while the number of cell was slightly compensated. (3) Compared with wild type, the content of chlorophyll and carotenoid of the mutant both decreased and the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoid and chlorophyll a/b significantly increased. (4) The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of mutant did not significantly change. The net photosynthetic rate of the mutant was 8% lower than that of wild type, and stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were 15% and 10% higher than that of wild type, respectively, but the differences were not significant.In mutant, the intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly higher than that of wild type. (5) The results of transmission electron microscope showed that the mesophyll cell of mutant was smaller than that of wild type, the cell area occupied by chloroplast was significantly larger, and the shape of chloroplast was semicircle and spindle. Most of the stromal and grana layer of abnormal chloroplasts were not obvious, and the stacking was not neat. The results of this study showed that the dwarfing of cucumber mutant C1056 was mainly caused by significantly shortened internode length and smaller cells, and the chloroplast structure of mutant was affected to some extent, but its photosynthetic capacity was not significantly affected.
keywords:cucumber  dwarf mutant  physiological characteristics analysis  microstructure observation
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