秋水仙素诱导月季品种‘月月粉’2n花粉的研究
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引用本文:张 凡,杨慕菡,巩俊清,冯 慧,高述民,周 燕.秋水仙素诱导月季品种‘月月粉’2n花粉的研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(4):620~629
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张 凡1,2,杨慕菡1,2,巩俊清1,冯 慧2,高述民1,周 燕1,2* (1 北京林业大学 生物科学与技术学院林木育种国家工程试验室北京 1000832 北京市园林科学研究院绿化植物育种北京市重点试验室北京 100102) 
基金项目:北京市自然科学基金(6162014);
中文摘要:为获得二倍体古老月季品种‘月月粉’人工诱导2n花粉用于现代月季杂交育种,该研究在了解‘月月粉’花粉母细胞发育过程的基础上,使用秋水仙素注射结合包裹法处理幼嫩花蕾,成功获得了可正常萌发的2n花粉,并通过观察诱导获得的花粉离体及其在雌蕊上的萌发特征,初步评估2n花粉用于杂交育种的性能。结果表明:(1)秋水仙素药棉包裹造成部分花蕾在采粉前死亡,花蕾存活率随秋水仙素浓度提高和处理时间延长均极显著降低。(2)2n花粉诱导率在秋水仙素浓度为2.5、5.0、7.5和10.0 g/L间存在显著差异,但在处理时间为24、48和72 h 间无显著差异;最佳诱导处理为5.0 g/L秋水仙素处理24 h,诱导率可达15.83%,该处理获得的2n花粉经亚历山大染色检验活力为27.2%。(3)‘月月粉’花粉母细胞在减数分裂时存在异常落后染色体和平行纺锤体,在四分体时期形成染色体数目加倍的二分体和三分体,最终产生2n花粉。(4)所诱导的2n花粉的体外萌发率和花粉管长度与天然花粉无显著差异,且都可以在母本柱头上萌发并长出花粉管进入子房,表明可用于进一步的杂交育种。
中文关键词:月季  2n花粉  秋水仙素  ‘月月粉’  花粉母细胞  花粉萌发
 
Study on 2n Pollen Induction by Colchicine in Rose Variety ‘Old Blush’
Abstract:To obtain the artificially induced 2n pollen from the diploid Chinese ancient rose ‘Old Blush’, which is to be used for the crossbreeding of modern rose and to effectively make use of its genetic resources, based on the understanding of the development of pollen mother cell of ‘Old Blush’, this study used the method of colchicine injection combined with wrapping to treat the tender buds, and we successfully obtained the 2n pollen which could be normally germinated. The performance of induced 2n pollen for cross breeding was also evaluated by observing the germination characteristics in vitro and on the pistil. The results showed that: (1) the colchicine absorbent cotton wrapping caused the death of part of the buds before the pollination, and the survival rate of flower bud decreased equally significantly with the increase of colchicine concentration and treatment time. (2) The 2n pollen induction rate differed significantly between the four colchicine concentrations of 2.5 g/L, 5.0 g/L, 7.5 g/L, and 10.0 g/L, but did not differ significantly between the three treatment periods of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. The best treatment was 24 hour 5.0 g/L colchicine, which can produce 15.83% viable 2n pollen. The 2n pollen vitality of this treatment was 27.2% detected by Alexander staining. (3) The mother cell of ‘Old Blush’ pollen had abnormal lagging chromosomes and parallel spindle during meiosis. During the tetrad period, dyads and triads were formed whose number of chromosomes are doubled, and the 2n pollen was produced eventually. (4) The in vitro germination rate and pollen tube length of induced 2n pollen were insignificantly different from those of natural pollen, and both of them could germinate on the stigma of female parent and grow pollen tubes in the ovary, so they could be used for a further crossbreeding.
keywords:Rosa chinensis  2n pollen  colchicine  ‘Old Blush’  pollen mother cell  pollen germination
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