新小竹花形态结构及雌、雄配子体的发育研究
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引用本文:初彩华,黄 玲,王曙光.新小竹花形态结构及雌、雄配子体的发育研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(5):763~769
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作者单位
初彩华,黄 玲,王曙光* (西南林业大学 生命科学学院昆明 650224) 
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0600102);
中文摘要:新小竹(Neomicrocalamus prainii)是一种小型攀援竹类,笋秆两用型竹种。该研究通过形态观察和石蜡切片的方法对新小竹花器官形态及解剖结构特征进行观察与描述,为研究竹类植物的生殖生物学提供新的理论信息。结果显示:(1)新小竹的花序为无限花序,没有小穗柄,成熟小穗平均长度为2.98 cm;每个小穗约有4~6朵小花,其中3~5朵为可育小花,顶端均有1朵不育小花;小穗基部有2~4个苞片;小穗轴每节长约0.52 cm。(2)新小竹的可育小花包括1片内稃、1片外稃、3枚浆片(浆片2大1小,边缘光滑)、6枚雄蕊和1枚雌蕊;雄蕊呈梭型,雌蕊羽毛状柱头三裂。(3)新小竹成熟花粉粒多为二核,具1个萌发孔;花药具有4个药室,花药壁由表皮、药室内壁、中层和绒毡层4层结构组成,绒毡层为腺质型;花药发育过程还存在多种异常情况。(4)新小竹子房一室,侧膜胎座,倒生胚珠,双珠被;大孢子母细胞由1个孢原细胞直接发育而成,合点端1个大孢子分化成为功能大孢子,由功能大孢子经过有丝分裂形成多核胚囊,直至发育成熟。研究表明,新小竹雄配子体存在发育异常现象,但大部分发育正常,其结实率低不仅与内在因素有关,外部环境也可能是导致其结实率低的重要因素。
中文关键词:新小竹  生殖器官  雌配子体  雄配子体
 
Floral Morphology and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes of Neomicrocalamus prainii
Abstract:The Neomicrocalamus prainii is a kind of small climbing bamboo,which could be used for both shoot and timber using purpose. The morphological and anatomical characteristics of the floral organs were described using anatomical observation and paraffin sections, so as to provide new theoretical information for the reproductive biology of bamboo plants. The results were showed as follows: (1) the inflorescence belonged to the indefinite inflorescence, and there was no pedicel. The mean length of the spikelets was 2.98 cm, and each spikelet contained 3-5 florets with a sterile flower at the top. There were 2-4 bracts at the base of the spikelets, and the mean length of the rachilla internode was 0.52 cm. (2) The florets contained 1 lemma, 1 palea, 3 lodicules (among which the two ones were bigger than the third one, and the edges were glabrous), 6 stamens and 1 pistil. The stamens were shuttle shaped and the stigma was three lobed and feathery. (3) The mature pollen grains had two nucleus and one germinal aperture. The anther was four sporangiat, and the anther wall was composed of four layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The tapetum was glandular. There were many abnormal phenomena that could be observed in developing anthers. (4) The ovary was unilocular, parietal placentation, with dual integument enclosing the anatropous ovule. Megaspore mother cell developed directly from a sporogenous cell, and a megaspore at the chalazal end differentiated into a functional megaspore, which formed a multicore embryo sac after mitosis until maturation. The study indicated that apparently abortive phenomenon occurred in the gametophytes of N. prainii, but most of the gametophytes were normal, and the low seed setting rate is correlated with internal factors, and the external environment is also an important factor.
keywords:Neomicrocalamus prainii  reproductive organs  female gametophyte  male gametophyte
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