二倍体芒小孢子发生及雄配子体发育研究
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引用本文:石艳兰,林宇环,赵元杰,刘清波,易自力,陈智勇.二倍体芒小孢子发生及雄配子体发育研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(5):770~775
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石艳兰1,林宇环1,赵元杰1,刘清波1,2,易自力1,2,陈智勇1,2* (1 湖南农业大学 生物科学技术学院长沙 4101282 芒属植物生态应用技术湖南省工程实验室长沙 410128) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31471557)
中文摘要:该实验通过采集天然二倍体芒不同发育时期的幼穗,进行卡宝品红染色压片和石蜡切片制作,观察芒的花药发育过程,为芒的生殖生物学及其系统发育研究奠定理论基础。结果表明:(1)天然二倍体芒雄蕊3枚,雄蕊花药四室,花药壁由4层细胞组成,从外向内依次是表皮、药室内壁、中层、绒毡层,花药壁发育属于基本型;花药成熟时,中层和绒毡层降解消失,或者仅存痕迹,只剩表皮和纤维层细胞,但此时可观察到部分绒毡层降解延迟现象。(2)花粉母细胞减数分裂为连续型,成熟花粉粒为3 细胞型;花粉母细胞减数分裂后期Ⅱ出现染色体分裂不同步现象。(3)雄配子体发育过程中,同一花粉囊的花粉粒发育不同步;雌、雄配子体发育也不同步,且雄蕊先成熟。
中文关键词:二倍体芒  小孢子发生  雄配子体  减数分裂
 
Microsporogenesis and Male Gametogenesis in Diploid Miscanthus sinensis
Abstract:The anther development process of natural diploid Miscanthus sinensis has been observed by carbol fuchsin staining and paraffin sectioning, after collecting young spikes of natural diploid M. sinensis at different stages. This experiment lay the theoretical foundation for reproductive biology and phylogeny of M. sinensis. The results as follows: (1) in natural diploid M. sinensis, there are 3 stamens and the anther is 4 sporangiates, which wall is composed of 4 layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The development of anther wall belongs to the basic type. Middle layer and tapetum degenerated or just leavening the vestige, only epidermis and fibrous layer remained when maturity of the anther. However, there were some tapeyums degraded lingeringly at the time of anther matured. (2) The meiosis of pollen mother cells is of successive type and the mature pollen is 3 celled type. The phenomenon that chromosome asynchronous division in pollen mother cell meiosis anaphaseⅡ was observed. (3) The development of pollen grains of the same anther was not synchronous at the process of male gametogenesis. Male and female gametophytes also did not develop synchronously and stamens matured earlier than pistils.
keywords:diploid Miscanthus sinensis  microsporogenesis  male gametogenesis  meiosis
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