深畦栽培对干旱胁迫下葡萄叶幕微气候和光合作用的影响
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引用本文:郭金丽,张 芳,李志伟,李小燕,王金印,李连国.深畦栽培对干旱胁迫下葡萄叶幕微气候和光合作用的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(5):840~847
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郭金丽,张 芳,李志伟,李小燕,王金印,李连国* (内蒙古农业大学 园艺与植物保护学院呼和浩特 010018) 
基金项目:内蒙古自然科学基金(2014MS0332);
中文摘要:试验以‘京亚’和‘红地球’葡萄品种2年生苗木为材料,在田间遮雨棚内考察了自然干旱胁迫下深畦栽植和平畦栽植葡萄根际土壤湿度、叶幕微气候因子、光合作用参数变化特征,探讨根际土壤湿度与叶幕气候互作对葡萄光合作用的影响。结果显示:(1)在干旱逆境下,葡萄根际土壤湿度和叶幕微气候因子交互作用能通过影响水分条件来影响葡萄的光合作用;土壤湿度阀值是葡萄进行光合作用时水分利用最有效的土壤湿度点值,土壤湿度阀值存在“阀值漂移”现象,与叶幕空气湿度呈明显负相关关系,维持较高的叶幕空气湿度有利于实现在较低的土壤湿度下达到更高的光合效率。(2)在干旱逆境下,与平畦栽植相比,深畦栽植在改善葡萄根际土壤水分和叶幕微气候方面具有明显的优势,在该模式下葡萄具有更强的保水能力和更高的水分利用效率,从而具有更强的光合效率。(3)采用深畦栽植模式时,根际土壤相对含水量30%~50%是显著影响葡萄光合作用的土壤湿度区间;根际土壤相对含水量分别在43.32%~50.00%和40.19%~50.00%是‘京亚’和‘红地球’光合作用适宜的土壤湿度范围,在43.32%和40.19%时分别为2种葡萄光合作用水分利用效率达到最高的最适土壤湿度。研究发现,干旱逆境条件下,葡萄根际土壤湿度和叶幕微气候因子交互作用能改善葡萄的光合作用效率;深畦栽植葡萄光合作用对土壤湿度的需求较低,在相对较低的土壤湿度即可达到相对较高的光合能力;深畦栽植模式可以协调葡萄光合作用和水分消耗之间的关系,具有较高的水分利用效率和光合能力,是干旱地区进行葡萄抗旱节水生产的理想模式。
中文关键词:葡萄  干旱逆境  深畦栽植  土壤湿度  叶幕微气候  光合作用
 
Effects of Deep furrow Planting on Canopy microclimate and Photosynthesis in Grape under Drought Stress
Abstract:The study aimed to explore the effect of interaction between rhizosphere soil humidity and canopy microclimate on photosynthesis in grape under drought stress. The changes of rhizosphere soil humidity, canopy microclimate factors, photosynthetic parameters of deep furrow planting and flat furrow planting were studied under drought stress in field with rain shelter, using two year old seedlings ‘Jingya’ and ‘Red globe’ as testing materials. The results showed: (1) under drought stress, the rhizosphere soil humidity and canopy microclimate interacted, and they effected photosynthesis by affecting water condition in grapes. The soil moisture threshold was the most effective soil moisture point for water utilization in photosynthesis of grape, and showed a “threshold drift” phenomenon. There was a significant negative correlation between the soil moisture and canopy air humidity. Therefore, higher canopy air humidity was beneficial to achieve higher photosynthetic efficiency under lower rhizosphere soil humidity condition. (2) Under drought stress, compared with flat furrow planting, deep furrow planting had obvious advantages to improve rhizosphere soil humidity and canopy microclimate. Grape had stronger water retaining capacity and higher water utilization efficiency under deep furrow planting, thus had stronger photosynthetic efficiency. (3) Under deep furrow planting, it was suggested: the rhizosphere soil relative water content of 30%-50% was the scope that significantly affected photosynthesis in grapevines; the appropriate soil moisture range for ‘Jingya’ and ‘Red Globe’ were 43.32%-50% and 40.19%-50%, respectively. The rhizosphere soil relative water content of 43.43% and 40.19% were the most effective soil moisture that generated the highest water utilization efficiency during photosynthesis in the leaves of ‘Jingya’ and ‘Red Globe’, respectively.
keywords:grape  drought stress  deep furrow planting  soil moisture  canopy microclimate  photosynthesis
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