叶片涂施多环芳烃在黄瓜体内的积累效应及对其生理特性的影响
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引用本文:张会敏,龙明华,乔双雨,赵体跃,龙 彪,梁勇生.叶片涂施多环芳烃在黄瓜体内的积累效应及对其生理特性的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(6):1064~1074
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作者单位
张会敏1,龙明华1*,乔双雨1,赵体跃1,龙 彪2,梁勇生3 (1 广西大学 农学院南宁 5300042 六盘水市果树蔬菜工作站贵州六盘水 5530003 南宁市农业科学研究所南宁 530000) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31360479);
中文摘要:以黄瓜品种 ‘秀川701’ 为材料,采用叶片涂施试验,考察了不同浓度的多环芳香烃(PAHs)萘、菲、荧蒽、苯并(a)蒽、苯并(a)芘混合液胁迫处理对黄瓜生长、生理和品质的影响及PAHs在黄瓜植株体内的积累特征,探究PAHs对蔬菜作物的生长影响及毒害机理。结果表明:(1)黄瓜7个部位(根、茎、叶片、叶柄、果皮、果肉、果瓤)中总PAHs含量随着叶片涂施浓度的升高呈先增加后降低的趋势,营养器官中以叶片含量最高、叶柄含量最低,果实中果皮含量最高、果瓤含量最低。(2)外源PAHs胁迫对黄瓜株高、茎粗、根长、叶长、叶宽、果实纵径、果实横径、单果重的影响均为低浓度促进中高浓度抑制。(3)外源PAHs处理使叶片SOD、CAT活性下降,MDA含量先提高后降低,尤其是中浓度胁迫下POD活性、叶绿素含量均显著提高。(4)外源PAHs对黄瓜果实维生素C、可溶性蛋白、可滴定酸含量的影响表现为低浓度促进中高浓度抑制,而对可溶性糖、可溶性固形物含量均具有抑制作用。研究认为,5种PAHs在黄瓜体内呈现出了特定的分布规律,直接暴露于大气环境的部位更容易吸收、积累PAHs;PAHs作为典型有机污染物,给黄瓜生长发育带来伤害的同时也起到了正向促进作用,且叶片对PAHs的吸收以及PAHs对黄瓜生理特性的促进或抑制作用都有一定阈值。
中文关键词:多环芳香烃  黄瓜  积累效应  生长  果实品质  生理特性
 
Accumulations and Physiological Performance Effects on Cucumber after Application of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Leaf
Abstract:Cucumber leaf was treatment with different concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as NAP, PHE, FLA, BaA and BaP mixture by the smear method. We studied the effects of PAHs on growth, physiological performance, and quality of cucumber and to understand their patterns of accumulations in different parts. Objective was to investigate the growth effects and toxicity mechanisms for vegetable with PAHs stress. The result showed that:(1) with PAHs treatment concentration rising, PAHs accumulation in seven parts of cucumber firstly ascended then descended. The highest PAHs contents were in leaves for the vegetative organ, the lowest contents in flesh for the fruit. (2) Low concentration of PAHs stress had positive effects on cucumber plant height, stem diameter, root length, leaf length, leaf width, fruit longitudinal stem, fruit cross stem and single fruit weight, whereas medium and high concentrations had negative impacts. (3) With PAHs treatment, leaf SOD and CAT activities reduced, MDA activity firstly ascended then descended. With intermediate concentration PAHs stress, POD activity obviously enhanced. (4) Low concentration of PAHs stress had positive effects on cucumber fruit vitamin C, soluble protein, titrate acid, whereas medium and high concentrations had negative impacts, the reduced soluble sugar and soluble solids were inhibited by PAHs. The study considers the PAHs had distribution characteristics in cucumber and the part easier to absorb and accumulate PAHs that exposed directly to the atmosphere. As a typical organic pollutant, PAHs have brought about harms also plays a positive role in growth and development of cucumber. There are certain threshold values for the leaves absorption of PAHs and the positive or negative effects on physiological characteristics of cucumber.
keywords:cucumber  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  accumulation  growth and development  fruit quality  physiological performance
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