土壤铅胁迫对地被竹出笋成竹的影响研究
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引用本文:廖家蓉,蔡心怡,陈雅慧,杜箫宇,杨轶雄,雷 霆,江明艳.土壤铅胁迫对地被竹出笋成竹的影响研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(6):1085~1095
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廖家蓉,蔡心怡,陈雅慧,杜箫宇,杨轶雄,雷 霆,江明艳* (四川农业大学 风景园林学院成都 611130) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(31700541);
中文摘要:以6种地被竹(菲黄竹、菲白竹、铺地竹、美丽箬竹、白纹椎谷笹和狭叶倭竹)为材料,设计3个土壤铅浓度处理(0、300、1 500 mg·kg-1),研究土壤铅胁迫对地被竹出笋成竹数量和新竹抗逆生理特性的影响,并采用隶属函数法对地被竹出笋成竹期的土壤铅耐受性进行综合评价。结果表明:(1)土壤铅胁迫对地被竹笋期节律的影响主要出现在出笋盛期(4~5月),发笋数的降低会导致多数竹种退笋率下降,以稳定新竹数量,只有菲白竹、白纹椎谷笹、狭叶倭竹的新竹数在高浓度土壤铅胁迫下显著低于CK,降幅分别为15.87%、23.64%和31.25%。(2)土壤铅胁迫会普遍引起地被竹新竹超氧阴离子和丙二醛含量的增加,在高浓度铅胁迫下铺地竹中二者含量最低(9.96 μg·g-1、0.016 μmol·g-1),狭叶倭竹的超氧阴离子含量最高(15.99 μg·g-1),菲黄竹的丙二醛含量最高(0.021 μmol·g-1)。(3)与其余4个竹种不同,在土壤铅胁迫下白纹椎谷笹和狭叶倭竹不能显著积累游离脯氨酸,细胞渗透调节作用弱。(4)6种地被竹在出笋成竹期对高浓度土壤铅的耐受性排序为:美丽箬竹(0.79)>铺地竹(0.75)>菲白竹(0.70)>狭叶倭竹(0.49)>白纹椎谷笹(0.39)>菲黄竹(0.38),其中美丽箬竹、铺地竹和菲白竹出笋成竹数量正常,且具有较强的抗逆生理特性,具有在高浓度土壤铅污染地区应用的潜力。
中文关键词:土壤铅胁迫  地被竹  笋期节律  出笋成竹  抗逆生理
 
Effect of Soil Pb Stress on Shoot emergence of Dwarf Bamboos
Abstract:The objective was to examine the shoot emergence of dwarf bamboos in Pb contained soil. In this regard, we selceted six kinds of dwarf bamboo [namely, Sasa auricoma (Mitford) E.G.Camus, Sasa fortunei (Van Houtte) Fiori, Sasa argenteostriata (Regel) E.G.Camus, Indocalamus decorus Q. H. Dai, Sasaella glabra (Nakai) f. albo striata Muroi, Shibataea lanceifolia C. H. Hu] and treated with three doses Pb concentrations (0, 300, 1 500 mg·kg-1) to investigate the quantity of shoot emergence and physiological stress resistance characteristics when exposed to soil Pb stress. Results showed that: (1) the effects of soil Pb stress on the shoot period rhythm of dwarf bamboo mainly in the shoot emergence period (April to May). The shoot emergence numbers of most bamboo species decreased accompany with degenerated shoot rate, so that to make it possible to stabilize the numbers of new bamboo shoot. Only that in Sasa fortunei, Sasaella glabra and Shibataea lanceifolia emerged a significantly lower tendency on numbers of new shoot under high concentration soil Pb stress when compared with CK, which decreases by 15.87%, 23.64% and 31.25%, respectively. (2) Soil Pb stress induced a surge in contents of O2-· and MDA of generally in new shoots. Both of them were presented with the lowest contained in Sasa argenteostriata (9.96 μg·g-1, 0.016 μmol·g-1), while the highest contained of O2-· and MDA appeared in Shibataea lanceifolia (15.99 μg·g-1) and Sasa auricoma (0.021 μmol·g-1), respectively. (3) As a result of being not capable of accumulating enormous free proline, which caused a weak osmotic regulation in Sasaella glabra and Shibataea lanceifolia, when compared with the other 4 species. (4) The tolerance of six dwarf bamboos to high concentration Pb soil during shoot emergence period was ranked as follows: Indocalamus decorus (0.79)> Sasa argenteostriata (0.75)>Sasa fortunei (0.70)>Shibataea lanceifolia (0.49)>Sasaella glabra (0.39) >Sasa auricoma (0.38). Above all, Indocalamus decorus, Sasa argenteostriata and Sasa fortunei innately possessed a better physiological characteristics of stress resistance, along with a common regular quantity of new shoots, was considered to retain the superiority of remediation in high concentration of Pb contained soil.
keywords:soil Pb stress  dwarf bamboo  shoot period rhythm  shoot emergence  physiology stress resistance
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