土壤pH对蓝莓生理特性的影响
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引用本文:袁 月,代志国,张丙秀,王天鹤,张 昭,姜 婷.土壤pH对蓝莓生理特性的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(8):1434~1443
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袁 月,代志国,张丙秀,王天鹤,张 昭,姜 婷 (东北农业大学 园艺园林学院哈尔滨 150030) 
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项资助项目(201103037)
中文摘要:以‘北陆’、‘喜来’、‘伯克利’和‘都克’4个蓝莓品种的3年生幼苗为试材,采用盆栽法研究在土壤pH为3.4 (T1)、4.3(T2)、4.8(T3)、5.8(T4)和6.8(T5)处理下各品种蓝莓的生长势、叶绿素荧光参数、渗透调节物质及抗氧化酶活性的变化,并对各类指标之间的关系进行了分析,以期为蓝莓栽培土壤的生产管理提供理论依据。结果显示:(1)4个蓝莓品种在T2、T3处理下地上部分生长势显著优于其他处理。(2)蓝莓叶片的最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、光化学猝灭系数(qP)及电子传递效率(ETR)随着土壤pH的升高呈先升高后降低的趋势,并在T3处理下达到最大值;同时其非光化学猝灭系数(NPQ)则呈先降低后升高的趋势,且在T3处理下降到最小值。(3)蓝莓叶片的渗透调节物质可溶性糖(SS)、可溶性蛋白(SP)、脯氨酸(Pro)含量均随着土壤pH的升高呈先降低后升高的趋势,其含量在T3处理下最低。(4)蓝莓叶片的抗氧化酶SOD和CAT活性随土壤pH的升高整体呈先升高后降低的趋势,在T3处理下活性最高,而POD活性则呈“W”型的变化趋势,在T3处理下活性较高。(5)相关性分析及主成分分析表明,叶绿素荧光参数、渗透调节物质及抗氧化酶活性之间存在不同程度的相关性,蓝莓的株高、叶面积和基生枝长与可溶性糖、脯氨酸和叶绿素荧光参数NPQ、Fv/Fm呈极显著相关关系。研究表明,4个品种蓝莓的各项生长和生理指标对不同土壤pH环境能做出积极响应,具有适宜的土壤pH阈值,各生理指标在pH 4.8的土壤条件下均处于较好水平,是蓝莓生长的最适合土壤pH条件。
中文关键词:蓝莓  土壤pH  叶绿素荧光参数  渗透调节物质  抗氧化酶活性
 
Effects of Soil pH on Physiological Characteristics of Blueberry
Abstract:Three year seedlings of four blueberry varieties, ‘Northland’, ‘Sierra’, ‘Berkeley’ and ‘Duke’, were used as test materials. In order to study their changes of growth potential, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant enzyme activities under 3.4 (T1), 4.3 (T2), 4.8 (T3), 5.8 (T4) and 6.8 (T5) soil pH treatments by pot culture, we analyzed the relationship between various indicators, and hope to provide a theoretical basis for the production management of blueberry cultivated soil. The results showed that: (1) The growth potential of the aboveground parts of 4 blueberry varieties under T2 and T3 treatments was significantly higher than that of other treatments. (2) With the increasing of soil pH, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and electron transfer efficiency (ETR) of four blueberry varieties showed a trend of first rising and then falling with increasing soil pH, and they rise to maximum under T3 treatment. At the same time, their Non photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) decreased firstly and then rise, it is lowered to the minimum under T3 treatment. (3) The contents of osmotic adjustment substances, soluble sugar (SS), soluble protein (SP) and proline (Pro) in blueberry leaves decreased firstly and then rise, it is lowered to the minimum under T3 treatment. (4) The activities of antioxidant, SOD and POD in blueberry leaves decreased firstly and then rise, it is lowered to the maximum under soil condition of T3 treatment, while POD activity showed a trend of “W” type, and it was higher under T3 treatment. (5) Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed that there were different degrees of correlation between chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant enzyme activities, simultaneously. The plant height, leaf area and basal shoot length of blueberry were significantly correlated with soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. NPQ and Fv/Fm. It can be seen that the growth and physiological indexes of the four blueberry varieties can respond positively to different soil pH environments, and have suitable soil pH thresholds. Each indicator is at a good level under soil conditions of pH 4.8, which is most suitable for blueberry growth.
keywords:blueberry  soil pH  chlorophyll fluorescence parameters  osmotic adjustment substance  antioxidant enzyme
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