红地球葡萄延后栽培成熟期水分运输研究
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引用本文:张 娟,张 坤,王玉安.红地球葡萄延后栽培成熟期水分运输研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(10):1776~1784
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作者单位
张 娟1,张 坤2,王玉安2* (1 甘肃农业大学 园艺学院兰州 7300702 甘肃省农业科学院 林果花卉研究所兰州 730070) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金地区基金(31660585);
中文摘要:以3年生延后栽培的红地球葡萄为材料,在生育后期设置土壤水分处理控制在0.20(T1)、0.25(T2)和0.30 m3·m-3(T3)左右,以果农常用的管理方法为对照(CK),在果实成熟期采用切片和田间树体茎流测定方法,研究果实水分运输结构变化和树体耗水状况。结果表明:(1)葡萄果实转色初期,果梗维管束的木质部结构完整且导管壁清晰可见;转色中期,果梗木质部部分导管壁变模糊,果刷中央维管束横切面积较转色前期变小;转色后期,果刷和果梗木质部导管壁模糊且破裂。(2)当葡萄果实可溶性固形物为7%时,果梗表皮细胞排列紧密且细胞间隙小,果刷维管束导管清晰可见;当可溶性固形物含量达到11%时,果刷中央维管束导管数量大于胚珠维管束,且分布不同;当可溶性固形物含量增加至15%时,果梗表皮细胞排列疏松,表皮细胞拉长,部分细胞发生破裂,果刷中央维管束和胚珠维管束的导管均出现解体。(3)9月11日左右,不同土壤水分处理(CK、T1、T2和T3)茎液流达到最大值,峰值分别为3.51、3.95、4.37和4.59 d·L-1;葡萄转色中期,在低温影响下T1的茎液流量整体显著低于T2、T3(P<0.05),但与CK无显著差异;10月15日至10月26日无明显极端低温发生,不同处理树体茎液流量均呈下降趋势;11月下旬随着温度持续降低,树体各处理茎液流量迅速下降。研究发现,土壤含水量过高,低温发生时会造成树体茎液流量降低,增加土壤供水能够延缓葡萄可溶性固形物的积累,从而延缓葡萄成熟。
中文关键词:红地球葡萄  延后栽培  水分运输  维管束  成熟期  液流
 
Study on Water Transport of Red Globe Grape during Delayed Cultivation Maturity
Abstract:The three year old delayed cultivation of Red Globe grape was used as material. At the later stage of growth, soil water content was controlled at 0.20 (T1), 0.25 (T2) and 0.30 m3·m-3 (T3). The common management methods of fruit growers were used as control (CK). The changes of water transport structure and water consumption of fruits were studied by means of slicing and field stem flow measurements during fruit ripening. The results showed that: (1) at the early stage of grape fruit color change, the xylem structure of the fruit stalk vascular bundle was intact and the pipe wall was clearly visible. In the middle stage of fruit color change, the wall of the xylem part of the fruit stalk become blurred, the cross sectional area of the central vascular bundle of the fruit brush in the middle stage was smaller than that in the early stage. In the later stage, the guide tube wall of fruit brush and fruit stem xylem were blurred and broken. (2) When the soluble solids content of grape fruit was 7%, the epidermal cells of fruit stalk were closely arranged and the intercellular space was small, and the vascular bundle of fruit brush were clearly visible. When the soluble solids content reached 11%, the number of central vascular bundles of fruit brush was larger than that of ovule vascular bundles, and the distribution was different. When soluble solids content increased to 15%, the fruit stalks were visible.Epidermal cells arranged loosely, epidermal cells elongated, some cells ruptured, and the central vascular bundle and ovule vascular bundle of fruit brush collapsed. (3) On September 11, the stem sap flow of different soil moisture treatments(CK, T1, T2 and T3) reached the maximum, with the peak values of 3.51, 3.95, 4.37 and 4.59 d·L-1, respectively. In the middle stage of grape color change, stem sap flow of T1 was significantly lower than that of T2 and T3 (P < 0.05) under the influence of low temperature, but there was no significant difference between T1 and CK. From October 15 to October 26, there was no obvious extreme low temperature, and the sap flow rate of the trees decreased among different treatments. With the continuous decrease of temperature in late November, the sap flow rate of each treatment decreased rapidly. It was found that the excessive soil moisture resulted in the decrease of stem sap flow at low temperature, and the increase of soil water supply could delay the accumulation of soluble solids in grapes, thus delaying the ripening of grapes.
keywords:Vitis vinifera L. cv. red globe grape  delayed cultivation  water transport  vascular bundles  mature period  fluid flow
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