板栗扦插生根过程的解剖结构和生理变化研究
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引用本文:杜常健,孙佳成,韩振泰,江泽平,王金宝,史胜青.板栗扦插生根过程的解剖结构和生理变化研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(11):1979~1987
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杜常健1,孙佳成1,韩振泰2,江泽平2,王金宝3,史胜青1* (1 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所国家林业局林与草原木培育重点实验室北京 1000912 中国林业科学研究院 森林生态环境与保护研究所北京 1000913 北京市怀柔区板栗试验站北京 102206) 
基金项目:国家林业和草原局科技发展中心项目(KJZXSA2019045);
中文摘要:以5年生和30年生板栗插穗以及30年生板栗母树不同月份(5、6、7月)插穗为材料,进行不同浓度(0、200和500 mg/L)吲哚丁酸(IBA)处理,观测各类处理材料的生根情况,并对扦插前插穗(初始茎)和扦插后插穗愈伤组织的碳氮代谢物质、褐化相关物质和解剖学结构进行分析观察,探讨不同年龄母树及不同月份插穗扦插生根能力,为板栗扦插生根技术体系奠定理论基础。结果表明:(1)5年生板栗的初始茎和愈伤组织中碳氮代谢相关物质淀粉和可溶性糖含量明显高于30年生板栗,而其可溶性蛋白含量30年生高于5年生板栗,但其γ 氨基丁酸(GABA)含量在不同年龄母树间无明显变化;30年生板栗插穗初始茎中可溶性蛋白、GABA和可溶性糖含量均随着月份的增加而逐渐降低,但是在愈伤组织中GABA、可溶性糖和淀粉含量随着月份增加而逐渐升高。(2)板栗插穗初始茎和愈伤组织的褐化相关物质单宁、酚类和类黄酮含量均表现为30年生不同程度低于5年生;除类黄酮含量在7月份的愈伤组织中有显著升高外,不同月份板栗的单宁、酚类、类黄酮含量均没有明显变化。(3)生根状况及解剖学观察结果显示,5年生板栗插穗的愈伤率和生根率高于30年生的插穗,且30年生插穗6月份扦插的愈伤率最高;板栗插穗属于诱导生根类型,皮层中存在环状厚壁组织;5年生板栗插穗的木质素含量低于30年生板栗,但形成层细胞层数高于30年生。研究认为,板栗扦插生根过程中插穗褐化现象严重,生根率较低;不同年龄母树和不同月份的板栗插穗在扦插过程中的碳氮代谢相关化合物含量都有明显的差异,而褐化相关物质含量仅在不同年龄母树间有较大的差异,不同月份间大部分无明显差异。
中文关键词:板栗  扦插  不定根  碳氮代谢相关物质  褐化相关物质  解剖结构
 
Study on Changes of Anatomical Structure and Physiology during Cuttings Rooting of Castanea mollissima
Abstract:The cuttings from 5 year old and 30 year old chestnut trees were firstly used to compare their rooting, and then cuttings from 30 year old chestnut trees were studied in May, June and July, including the effects of different IBA concentrations (0, 200 and 500 mg/L). During the cutting process, the rooting of various treatments, the carbon and nitrogen metabolites, browning related substances and anatomical structures were investigated before cutting (initial stems) and after cutting (calluses), and then the rooting ability of cuttings in different mother trees and different months were discussed, which would lay a foundation for the study of rooting of chestnut cuttings. The results showed: (1) the starch and soluble sugars in the initial stems and calluses of the 5 year old chestnut were significantly higher than those of the 30 year old chestnut, while the soluble proteins were contrary, but GABA did not change significantly between different mother trees. For 30 year old chestnut cuttings, the contents of soluble proteins, GABA and soluble sugars decreased in the initial stems, but GABA, soluble sugars and starch increased gradually in the calluses with the increasing months. (2) The contents of tannins, phenols and flavonoids in the initial stems and calluses of chestnut cuttings were almost less in 30 year old trees than those of 5 year old trees. Except for the significant increase in flavonoids in the calluses in July, there were no significant changes in the contents of tannins, phenols and flavonoids in different months. (3) The observation of rooting status and anatomy indicated that the callus rate and rooting rate in 5 year old chestnut cuttings were higher than those of the 30 year old ones, and the callus rate was the highest in June. Chestnut cuttings belonged to the type of induced rooting, and the annular thick walled tissue existed in the cortex. The lignin content of the 5 year old chestnut cuttings was lower than that of the 30 year old ones, but the number of cambium layers was contrary. Our study indicated that chestnut cuttings were severely browned, resulting in a lower rooting rate; there were significant differences in carbon and nitrogen metabolism related compounds in the cuttings from the different mother trees and different months; the browning related substances had significant differences in the cuttings from different age mother trees, but there was little change between different months.
keywords:chestnut  cuttings  adventitious roots  carbon and nitrogen metabolism related substances  browning related substances  anatomical structure
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