罗汉松雌雄株叶形态结构的比较研究
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引用本文:朱栗琼,邓冬丽,招礼军,黎 军,李国花.罗汉松雌雄株叶形态结构的比较研究[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(12):2179~2186
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作者单位
朱栗琼1,邓冬丽1,招礼军1*,黎 军2,李国花3 (1 广西大学 林学院南宁 530004 2 北海市林业科学研究所广西北海 5360003 广西金穗园林绿化工程有限责任公司南宁 532703) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31560061)
中文摘要:该研究以雌雄异株植物罗汉松(Podocarpus macrophyllus)成熟叶为研究材料,采用光学显微镜、扫描电镜和透射电镜观察比较罗汉松雌、雄植株叶在形态、显微结构和超显微结构的差异,以明确罗汉松雌、雄株在进化过程中叶对环境功能的适应性。结果显示:(1)罗汉松雌株的叶片大于雄株,且两者的叶长、叶宽和叶柄长差异极显著,而叶柄厚、叶面积、叶体积、叶质量、比叶重(SLW)、面积与体积之比(A/V)等性状无显著差异。(2)雌株叶片的气孔相对较大,密度较高,且雌株气孔宽度极显著大于雄株;雌株叶片的上表皮长细胞宽度和下表皮短细胞宽度均显著大于雄株,但雌株叶片的上表皮长细胞和短细胞的长度则显著小于雄株。(3)罗汉松雌株叶片的栅栏组织厚度、海绵组织厚度、传输组织长度和宽度、上下角质层厚度、维管束厚度、叶片紧密度(CTR)及疏松度(SR)均极显著大于雄株,而雌株的下表皮厚度极显著小于雄株,但雌雄株叶片的上表皮细胞厚度和栅海比差异不显著;雌株叶片的栅栏组织细胞、叶绿体和线粒体均较雄株的长而细,且雌株的线粒体宽度极显著小于雄株。(4)罗汉松雌株叶片上表皮蜡质饰纹、下表皮角质层纹饰、气孔外拱盖纹饰及内缘类型等4个微形态特征与雄株差异明显。(5)叶表皮蜡质层能谱分析表明,罗汉松雌株叶片含有9种元素,而雄株叶片仅有8种(缺少K元素);且雌株的Si元素含量高于雄株,而雄株的C、O、Na、Mg、Al、Ca和Au元素含量均高于雌株。研究表明,罗汉松雌、雄植株之间存在明显的第二性征,雌株叶片结构有助于提高光合等性能以满足生殖需求;罗汉松雌、雄株叶形态结构的差异是其长期进化形成的有利于物种繁衍的适应策略。
中文关键词:罗汉松  雌雄异株  叶片形态  超微结构  表面能谱
 
Comparison on Leaf Morphological Structure of the Dioecious Podocarpus macrophyllus
Abstract:The mature leaves of dioecious plant Podocarpus macrophyllus were studied. The differences of leaf morphology, microstructure and ultra microstructure between male and female plants were observed by light microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, so as to make clear the adaptability of female and male leaves to environmental function in the process of evolution. The results showed that: (1) the leaves of female plants were larger than that of male plants, and there were significant differences in leaf length, leaf width and petiole length between them, but there were no significant differences in petiole thickness, leaf area, leaf volume, leaf mass, specific leaf weight (SLW) and ratio of area to volume (A/V). (2) The stomata of female plants were relatively large and dense, and the stomatal width of female plants was significantly larger than that of male plants. The width of long cells in upper epidermis and short cells in lower epidermis of female leaves were significantly larger than that of male leaves, but the length of long cells and short cells in upper epidermis of female leaves were significantly smaller than that of male leaves. (3) The thickness of palisade and sponge tissue, length and width of transport tissue, thickness of upper and lower cuticle, thickness of vascular bundle, cell tense ratio (CTR) and spongy ratio (SR) of female leaves were significantly larger than that of male leaves, while the thickness of lower epidermis of female leaves was significantly smaller than that of male leaves. However, there was no significant difference in the thickness of upper epidermis cells and the ratio of palisade to spongy tissue between male and female leaves. The palisade cells, chloroplasts and mitochondria of female plants were longer and thinner than that of male plants, and the width of mitochondria of female plants was significantly smaller than that of male plants. (4) There were remarkable differences between male and female plants in the four micro morphological characteristics, such as waxy ornamentation on the upper epidermis, cuticle ornamentation of lower epidermis, and ornamentation and inner margin of outer stomata ledge. (5) The analysis of waxy layer energy spectrum of leaf epidermis showed that there were 9 elements in female leaves, but only 8 elements in male leaves (lack of K element). The content of Si element in female leaves was higher than that in male leaves, while the contents of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca and Au element in male leaves were higher than that in female ones. The results suggest that there were obvious secondary sexual characteristics between male and female plants of P. macrophyllus, and the leaf structure of female plants was helpful to improve the photosynthesis to meet reproductive needs. The difference of leaf morphological structure between male and female plants was the adaptive strategy for species reproduction in the long term evolution of P. macrophyllus.
keywords:Podocarpus macrophyllus  dioecism  leaf morphology  ultrastructure  surface energy spectrum
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