沼液对蒙古黄芪抗逆生理指标及药用活性成分含量的影响
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引用本文:陆国弟,杨扶德,郑 健,王惠珍,陈红刚,杜 弢.沼液对蒙古黄芪抗逆生理指标及药用活性成分含量的影响[J].西北植物学报,2019,39(12):2235~2243
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作者单位
陆国弟1,杨扶德1*,郑 健2,王惠珍1,陈红刚1,杜 弢1 (1 甘肃中医药大学兰州 7300002 兰州理工大学兰州 730050) 
基金项目:甘肃省科技厅青年项目(177R5RA166);
中文摘要:以一年生蒙古黄芪苗为实验材料,设置4个沼液浓度(0%、50%、80%和100%)和1个化肥浓度处理,通过盆栽实验,研究不同浓度沼液基施(作基肥施入)和配施(基肥+2次叶面喷洒)对黄芪苗生长、生理指标及药用有效成分含量的影响。结果显示:(1)配施50%沼液、配施或者基施80%沼液及基施100%沼液均有助于增加蒙古黄芪生物量,但沼液施用效果不如基施化肥明显。(2)配施低浓度沼液(50%)和基施高浓度沼液(80%)均可显著提高黄芪叶片叶绿素、游离脯氨酸、可溶性糖含量,并显著优于基施化肥的效果。(3)配施50%沼液能促进蒙古黄芪叶片SOD、CAT活性,基施80%沼液能促进SOD活性,而配施80%沼液能促进POD、CAT活性,但100%沼液却使各保护酶活性均迅速下降;黄芪SOD活性对沼液处理较敏感,而POD、CAT活性对基施化肥处理较敏感;黄芪叶片MDA含量在适宜沼液浓度和施用方式下显著较低,但在基施80%沼液处理下显著较高。(4)黄芪根内黄芪甲苷和毛蕊异黄酮葡萄糖苷含量随沼液浓度增加呈先增后降趋势;黄芪甲苷含量以80%沼液基施处理较高,比对照显著增加57.44%;毛蕊异黄酮葡萄糖苷含量以80%沼液配施较高,显著高出对照24.06%;与同浓度化肥处理相比,沼液处理的黄芪甲苷含量显著增加了74.47%,而毛蕊异黄酮葡萄糖苷显著降低了42.16%。研究发现,合理的沼液浓度及施用方式能有效促进黄芪苗的生长、抗逆生理指标及药用有效成分含量的提高,并以80%沼液基施处理的黄芪苗生长更好,药用活性成分含量更高。
中文关键词:沼液  蒙古黄芪  生长指标  生理生化指标  黄芪甲苷  毛蕊异黄酮葡萄糖苷
 
Effect of Applying Biogas Slurry on Physiological Characteristics and Active Component Content of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao
Abstract:To explore the effects of different biogas slurry concentrations and application methods on growth, physiological characteristic indexes and component content of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, we potted 1 year old A.membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings, set four biogas slurry concentrations (0%, 50%, 80% and 100%), one chemical fertilizer concentration (the concentration is same as 50% biogas slurry concentration). The experimental results showed: (1) using base fertilizer and base fertilizer+spray as the 2 kinds of application methods, the growth index of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of biogas slurry concentrations, the growth of single plant was based on base fertilizer+spraying, which showed a trend of decreasing firstly and then increasing, the above indicators were higher with chemical fertilizer. (2) The contents of chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of biogas slurry concentrations, the indicators of chlorophyll, osmotic adjustment substance were higher with 80% biogas slurry fertilizer (P<0.05). (3) Using base fertilizer as the application method, the activity of SOD decreased firstly, then increased and decreased finally. The activities of POD and CAT increased firstly, then decreased and increased eventually. Using base fertilizer and spray as the application method, all indicators of antioxidase activities showed a same trend of increasing firstly and then decreasing with the increase of the biogas slurry concentration, and the SOD value of 80% biogas slurry fertilizer treatment and the POD and CAT values of chemical fertilizer treatment were significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05); the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased firstly, then increased and decreased finally with the application of base fertilizer method, the application of base fertilizer + spraying increased firstly and then decreased, and the indicator was higher with 80% biogas slurry fertilizer (P<0.05). (4) The contents of astragaloside and calycosin 7 O β D glycosides increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of biogas slurry concentration compared with the two irrigation methods. As a whole, the contents of astragaloside and calycosin 7 O β D glycosides increased by 57.44% and 24.06% compared with the control, respectively. Compared with the same concentration of chemical fertilizer, the content of astragaloside in the biogas slurry treatment increased by 74.47%, while the content of calycosin 7 O β D glycosides decreased by 42.16%. These results indicated appropriate biogas slurry concentration and irrigation method can improve the growth and index component content of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedling. The A.membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedling which treated with 80% biogas slurry fertilizer had better growth and higher quality.
keywords:biogas slurry  Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao  growth indexes  physiological and biochemical indexes  astragaloside  calycosin 7 O β D glycosides
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