敦煌‘李光杏’花芽发育过程中雌蕊败育观察及生物学特性调查
    点此下载全文
引用本文:陈翠莲,赵 通,郭 荣,刘生虎,张继强.敦煌‘李光杏’花芽发育过程中雌蕊败育观察及生物学特性调查[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(2):262~272
摘要点击次数: 62
全文下载次数: 90
作者单位
陈翠莲1,赵 通2,郭 荣3,刘生虎3,张继强1* (1 甘肃省林业科学研究院兰州 7300702 甘肃农业大学 园艺学院兰州 7300703 甘肃省敦煌市林业技术推广中心甘肃敦煌 736200) 
基金项目:甘肃省科技厅重点研发计划项目(17YF1NA054)
中文摘要:为克服杏生产中雌蕊败育现象、提高坐果率,该研究以甘肃省敦煌市的‘李光杏’盛果期不同树势(强势树、中庸树和弱势树)和不同类型结果枝(花束状果枝、短果枝、中果枝、长果枝)的花芽为试材,对其开花物候期及生物学特性进行调查,采用石蜡切片观察易发生败育时期(花芽分化初期、雌蕊分化期、花粉细胞期和花蕾膨大期)的花芽内部组织结构形态,同时测定各主要败育时期叶片可溶性糖、淀粉含量及矿质元素的变化。结果表明:(1)弱树花芽的平均败育率最高(91.26%),中庸树最低(71.08%);不同类型结果枝中,花束状果枝花芽的败育率最低,长果枝的败育率最高。(2)不同结果枝类型的花粉生活力表现为花束状果枝>短果枝>中果枝>长果枝,花粉发芽率表现为短果枝>花束状果枝>中果枝>长果枝。各花型花粉生活力表现为雌蕊高于雄蕊>雌雄等长>雌蕊低于雄蕊>无雌蕊,发芽率的表现为雌雄等长>雌蕊高于雄蕊>雌蕊低于雄蕊>无雌蕊。(3)各树势花芽雌蕊分化期叶片可溶性糖与淀粉含量显著低于其他时期;叶片P、K、Ca含量在分化前期较高,但是雌蕊、雄蕊分化期显著下降。(4)与正常花相比,败育花主要表现为子房发育异常,多数生长点不均匀,子房萎缩,胚珠原基发育停滞;雌蕊的花柱低于花丝,且花粉粒急剧减少。研究发现,‘李光杏’树势的强弱会造成败育花比例和坐果率的差异,并以中庸树果实坐果率最高,且花败育率最低;雌蕊发育是否正常直接关系到‘李光杏’正常开花,雌蕊的发育受阻,最终成为整个花芽退化的主要形式;叶片碳水化合物和矿质元素等营养物质参与并保证了花器官的正常发育。
中文关键词:李光杏  雌蕊败育  花粉活力  花粉发芽率  坐果率  花芽组织结构
 
Investigation of Biological Characteristics and Observation of Pistil Abortion during Flower Bud Development of Prunus armeniaca L. var. glabra Sun S. X.
Abstract:In order to overcome the phenomenon of pistil abortion in apricot production and improve the fruit setting rate, we used the flower buds of fruiting branches of ‘Liguangxing’(Prunus armeniaca L. var. glabra Sun S. X.) with different tree vigor (strong tree, moderate tree and weak tree) and different types (bunch shaped fruit branch, short fruit branch, middle fruit branch and long fruit branch) in full fruit period as materials to investigate the flowering phenology and biological characteristics. Paraffin sections were used to observe the morphology of the internal tissue structure of flower buds in the abortion prone period (flower bud differentiation stage, pistil differentiation stage, pollen cell stage and flower bud expansion stage). At the same time, the changes of soluble sugar, starch contents and mineral elements in leaves at different main abortion stages were determined. The results showed that: (1) the average abortion rate of flower bud of weak tree was the highest (91.26%), and that of median tree was the lowest (71.08%). For different types of fruiting branches, the abortion rate of flower bud of flower bundle like fruit branch was the lowest, and that of long fruit branch was the highest. (2) The size of pollen viability was as follows: cluster branches > short branches > medium branches > long branches, and the germination rate was as follows: short branches > cluster branches > medium branches > long branches. The pollen viability of flower type was as follows: pistil is higher than stamen > pistils as long as stamens > pistil is lower than stamen > no pistil, and the germination rate was as follows: pistils as long as stamens > pistil is higher than stamen> pistil is lower than stamen > no pistil. (3) The contents of soluble sugar and starch in leaves at pistil differentiation stage were significantly lower than those at other stages; the contents of P, K and Ca in leaves were higher at early differentiation stage, but decreased significantly at pistil and stamen differentiation stage. (4) Compared with the normal flowers, the abortive flowers mainly showed abnormal ovary development, uneven growth points, atrophy of ovary and stagnation of ovule primordium development. The style of pistil of abortive flower was lower than that of filament, and the number of pollen grains decreased sharply. The results showed that the pistil abortion was serious and the fruit setting rate was very low. The difference of the proportion of abortive flowers was caused by the strength of trees. Whether the pistil development is normal or not is directly related to the normal flowering of ‘Liguangxing’. The development of pistil is blocked and eventually becomes the main form of flower bud degeneration. Leaf carbohydrate and mineral elements and other nutrients participate in and ensure the normal development of flower organs.
keywords:Prunus armeniaca L. var. glabra Sun S. X.  pistil abortive  pollen vitality  pollen germination rate  fruit setting rate  flower bud tissue structure
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
   今日访问:1584    总访问量:14109603

版权所有:《西北植物学报》编辑部

技术支持:北京勤云科技有限公司