莳萝蒿精油成分分析及抑菌活性机理探究
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引用本文:霍归国,梁婷玉,黄志芸,白增福,陈学林,张 继.莳萝蒿精油成分分析及抑菌活性机理探究[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(2):273~280
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作者单位
霍归国1,2,梁婷玉1,2,黄志芸1,2,白增福1,陈学林1*,张 继1,2,3 (1 西北师范大学 生命科学学院兰州 730070
2 甘肃省特色植物有效成分制品工程技术研究中心兰州 730070
3 西北师范大学新农村发展研究院兰州 730070) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51873175);
中文摘要:为了确定莳萝蒿精油的化学成分,并探究其抑菌活性及抑菌机理。该研究采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取莳萝蒿精油,并通过气相色谱 质谱联用法测定其化学成分。采用抑菌圈法、二倍稀释法和生长曲线法测定精油的抑菌活性,采用电导率法和扫描电镜法探究精油的抑菌机理。结果表明:(1)莳萝蒿精油的主要化学成分包括醇类(47.12%)和萜烯类(19.90%),在所有成分中桉油精(12.39%)含量最高,其次为松油醇(8.70%)。(2)精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的抑菌圈直径分别为(22.57±1.68) mm和(15.36±0.71) mm。(3)精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的最小抑菌浓度分别为3.25和7.5 μL/mL,最小杀菌浓度分别为7.5和15 μL/mL。(4)当精油浓度为1.625和3.25 μL/mL时,其分别能够延缓金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的生长;当精油浓度为3.25和7.5 μL/mL时,其能够完全抑制金黄色葡萄球菌的生长;当精油浓度为7.5和15 μL/mL时,其能够完全抑制大肠杆菌的生长。(5)经精油处理之后的细菌,其相对电导率明显增大,且随精油浓度的增加而增大,同时其细胞膜发生了萎缩和破裂的现象。研究发现,莳萝蒿精油富含醇类和萜烯类等多种活性物质,对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌具有良好的抑菌活性,且莳萝蒿精油能够改变细胞的膜结构,导致细菌中的内溶物发生泄漏,从而抑制细菌生长。
中文关键词:莳萝蒿精油  气相色谱 质谱联用法  抑菌活性  抑菌机理
 
Composition Analysis and Antibacterial Activity Mechanism Exploration of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. Essential Oil
Abstract:In order to determine the chemical composition of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. essential oil, and explore its antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanism, we extracted the essential oil of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. by the steam distillation, and its chemical constituents were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrum (GC MS) in this study. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was determined by the inhibition zone method, double dilution method and growth curve method, and the antibacterial mechanism of the essential oil was investigated by the electrical conductivity method and scanning electron microscope method. The results showed that: (1) the main chemical constituents of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. essential oil included alcohols (47.12%) and terpenes (19.90%), among all the components, the content of eucalyptol (12.39%) was the highest, followed by terpineol (8.70%). (2) The diameters of inhibition zone of essential oil against S.aureus and E.coli were (22.57±1.68) mm and (15.36±0.71) mm, respectively. (3) The minimum inhibitory concentrations of essential oil against S. aureus and E. coli were 3.25 and 7.5 μL/mL, respectively, and the minimum bactericidal concentrations were 7.5 and 15 μL/mL, respectively. (4) When the concentration of essential oil were 1.625 and 3.25 μL/mL, it could delay the growth of both S.aureus and E. coli. When the concentrations of essential oil were 3.25 and 7.5 μL/mL, it could inhibit the growth of S. aureus completely, and when the concentrations of essential oil were 7.5 and 15 μL/mL, it could inhibit the growth of E. coli completely. (5) Having been treated with essential oil, the relative conductivity of the bacteria increased significantly, with the increased of the essential oil concentration. In addition, the phenomenon of atrophy and rupture of the cell membrane occurred. The study found that the essential oil of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. was rich in many active substances, such as alcohols and terpenes. It had good antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli, and the essential oil of Artemisia anethoides Mattf. could change the membrane structure of cells and resulted in the leakage of soluble substances in bacteria, thereby inhibit the growth of bacteria.
keywords:Artemisia anethoides Mattf. essential oil  gas chromatography mass spectrum (GC MS)  antibacterial activity  antibacterial mechanism
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