海拔对乌红杂交天麻产量与品质的影响及其酶学作用机制
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引用本文:杨 婧,王传华,曾春函,王洋洋,侯云波,杨 林.海拔对乌红杂交天麻产量与品质的影响及其酶学作用机制[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(2):281~289
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作者单位
杨 婧1,3,王传华1,2,3*,曾春函2,王洋洋2,侯云波2,杨 林4 (1 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北宜昌4430022 湖北省三峡地区生态保护与治理国际联合研究中心湖北宜昌4430023 三峡大学生物与制药学院湖北宜昌4430024 贵州健康职业学院贵州铜仁 554300) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31570543);
中文摘要:蜜环菌生物种和天麻的共生关系是二者侵染 消化系统相互作用的结果,受到温度等环境因子的调节。为揭示海拔对天麻产量及品质的影响,以及温度升高影响蜜环菌生物种 天麻共生关系的作用机制。该研究通过测定不同海拔栽培天麻的产量、主要药用成分天麻素和对羟基苯甲醇的含量;在室内对天麻共生体进行升温处理,测定天麻组织液几丁质酶、β 1,3 葡聚糖酶、苯丙氨酸解氨酶与多酚氧化酶的活性变化,及天麻组织提取液对蜜环菌菌丝体的抑制效应。结果显示:(1)海拔对乌红杂交天麻的产量和有效药用成分存在显著影响,在1 600 m产量最高,且杂交天麻在海拔1 600 m有效成分含量最高。(2)温度显著影响天麻组织的抑菌系统,且天麻的消化酶及防御酶系统对其的响应具有差异性,具体表现为低温状况下天麻的消化酶系统活性增强,高温时防御酶系统活性提升。(3)温度升高导致天麻组织液对蜜环菌菌丝体的抑制效果显著下降,天麻活体中可能存在促进蜜环菌生长的热失活因子。研究表明,天麻种植区海拔下降引起的温度升高可能削弱天麻消化和抑制蜜环菌的能力,从而破坏天麻 蜜环菌的共生平衡。该研究对于揭示蜜环菌 天麻的共生机制具有重要科学价值,并对天麻栽培的区划具有实际指导意义。
中文关键词:天麻  蜜环菌  消化酶  防御酶  天麻抗真菌蛋白
 
Effects of Altitude on the Yield and Medicinal Quality of Tubers of Gastrodia elata and the Enzymic Mechanism Concerning Variation of Temperature
Abstract:The symbiosis of Armillaria spp. and Gastrodia elata is an interaction consequence of the infection system of Amillaria spp. and the digestive and/or anti fungi system of G. elata, and this may be regulated by temperature. In order to reveal the influence of altitude on the yield and quality of Gastrodia spp., and the mechanism how increased temperature damage the symbiosis of Armillaria biological species and G. elata, this study determined the yield of G. elata cultivated at different altitudes, and the contents of the main medicinal components gastrodin and p hydroxybenzyl alcohol. The symbionts of G. elata were heated up in the room, then activity of chitinase, β 1, 3 glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia enzyme and polyphenol oxidase were determined, as well as the inhibition effects of homogenate of the G. elata tube on Armillaria mycelial growth. Results showed that: (1) altitude had a significant effect on the yield and effective medicinal components of hybrid of G. elata B1. f. elata × G. elata B1. f. glauca, with the highest yield at 1 600 m and the highest content of effective components at 1 600 m. (2) Temperature significantly affected the antifungal system of G. elata, and the response of G. elata digestive enzymes and defense enzyme systems to temperature is different. The specific manifestation is that the digestive enzyme system activity of G. elata increases under low temperature conditions and the activity of defense enzyme system at high temperature. (3) The increase in temperature leads to a significant decrease in the inhibitory effect of G. elata tissue fluid on the mycelium of Armillaria. There may be heat inactivating factors in living G. elata that promote the growth of Armillaria. Studies have shown that the increase in temperature caused by the decrease in altitude in Gastrodia planting areas may weaken the ability of G. elata to digest and inhibit Armillaria, thereby destroy the symbiosis balance between G. elata and Armillaria. This research has important scientific value for revealing the symbiosis mechanism of Armillaria Gastrodia elata, and has practical significance for the zoning of G. elata cultivation.
keywords:Gastrodia elata  Armillaria spp.  digestive enzyme  defensive enzyme  gastordianin, GAFP
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