野生烟草花粉活力与柱头可授性及繁育特性研究
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引用本文:姚志敏,刘艳华,戴培刚,向德虎,张兴伟,赵韬智,王志德.野生烟草花粉活力与柱头可授性及繁育特性研究[J].西北植物学报,2015,35(3):614~621
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姚志敏,刘艳华,戴培刚*,向德虎,张兴伟,赵韬智,王志德 (中国农业科学院烟草研究所/烟草遗传改良与生物技术重点开放实验室,山东青岛 266001) 
基金项目:国家烟草专卖局专项(国烟办综[2005]501号);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610032011011);农业部财政专项烟草种质资源收集编目繁种与保存分发利用(2014NWB036,1610032011011)
中文摘要:采用TTC法测定2个野生烟草材料(花烟草、哥西氏烟草)和1个栽培品种(K326)的花粉活力及其日变化情况,通过联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定3个烟草材料的柱头可授性、利用直接授粉法测定不同开花天数柱头可授性变化,并通过估算花粉胚珠比(P/O)、杂交指数(OCI)及授粉试验分析3个烟草材料的繁育特性。结果表明:(1)哥西氏烟草的花粉活性(74.9%)显著高于K326(52.2%)和花烟草(45.3%),且K326与花烟草间差异不显著;3个烟草材料花粉活力日变化均呈双峰曲线,峰值分别在13:00与15:00左右,且3个烟草材料的花粉活力日最低值与气温日最高值同时出现在14:00。(2)K326柱头可授性显著高于花烟草和哥西氏烟草,且2个野生烟草间可授性显著差异;不同烟草的最佳授粉时期不同,哥西氏烟草自开花前1 d至花后4 d,一直保持较高的柱头可授性;花烟草的最佳授粉时期为花后2~3 d;K326的柱头在开花前1 d至开花后1 d授粉最佳。(3)K326以自交为主,存在异交现象;哥西氏烟草繁育类型为兼性异交,自交亲和;花烟草繁育以异交为主,自交亲和性差。研究认为,野生烟草柱头可授性显著低于栽培品种从而影响其结实性,花烟草结实率低主要是由自交不亲和性造成的,而缺乏有效的传粉机制是造成哥西氏烟草结实性差的主要原因。
中文关键词:烟草  花粉活力  柱头可授性  结实率  繁育特性
 
Wild Tobacco Pollen Viability,Stigma Receptivity and Reproductive Characteristics
Abstract:The pollen viability and the daily changes of 2 wild tobacco resources(Nicotiana alata,N.gossei) and 1 cultivar(K326) were measured by TTC method.The receptivity of stigma was measured by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method,and the stigma receptivity changes of different flowering days were measured by pollination test.The reproductive characteristics of 3 tobacco resources were analyzed by estimating pollen ovule ratio(P/O),hybrid breeding index (OCI) and pollination test.The results showed that:(1)The pollen viability of N.gossei(74.9%) was significantly higher than that of K326(52.2%) and N.alata(45.3%),but there was no significant difference between K326 and N.alata.The daily changes of pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources showed bimodal curves,the peaks at 13:00 and 15:00,respectively.Both the lowest daily pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources and the highest daily temperature appeared at 14:00.(2)The stigma receptivity of K326 was significantly higher than that of N.alata’s and N.gossei’s,but there was no significant difference between the 2 wild resources.The optimal pollination periods of different resources were different.Stigma receptivity of N.gossei might maintain highly from before 1 day to after 4 days of flowering day.The optimal pollination period of N.alata was 2-3 days after flowering day,while the optimal pollination period of K326 was from before 1 day to after 1day of flowering day.(3)The reproductive type of K326 was self-compatible,with some outcrossing phenomena.N.alata and N.gossei were mainly outcrossing.But N.gossei was self-compatible,and the self-compatibility of N.alata was poor.The results indicated that the stigma receptivity of wild resources significantly influenced their fecundity.Low seed-set rate of N.alata was mainly due to self-incompatibility,otherwise the lack of effective pollination was the main reason causing low seed-set rate of N.gossei.
keywords:tobacco  pollen viability  stigma receptivity  seed setting rate  breeding characteristics
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