叶片黄化对葡萄生理和果实品质的影响
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中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所 郑州 450009

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中国农业科学院科技创新工程专项经费;现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金


Effect of leaf chlorosis on grape physiology and berry quality
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(CAAS-ASTIP-2021-ZFRI);(CARS-29-yc-1)

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    摘要:

    以表现黄化症状的4年生‘阳光玫瑰’成龄树为试材,分析比较黄化植株与正常植株的茎叶生长量、叶绿素含量、光合特性、叶绿素荧光参数、叶片解剖结构以及果实品质和产量的变化特征,探究叶片黄化后对葡萄生长量、光合指标、叶绿素荧光特性以及果实品质的影响,为葡萄开展黄化矫正栽培提供参考依据。结果表明:(1)与正常植株相比,黄化植株叶片的叶绿素含量、叶片大小、叶片重量、新梢长度、枝条粗度均显著降低;(2)与正常植株相比,黄化植株叶片的光合气体交换参数中净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)显著下降,而胞间CO2浓度(Ci)显著上升;(3)黄化植株叶片的叶绿素荧光参数初始荧光(Fo)、光下最小荧光产量(Fo’)、最大荧光产量(Fm)、相对电子传递速率(ETR)、实际光合量子产量Y(Ⅱ)均比正常植株显著降低;(4)黄化植株叶片厚度、栅栏组织厚度和栅海比比正常植株显著升高,上表皮厚度和海绵组织厚度比正常植株显著降低;(5)黄化植株果实产量、穗重、果实大小、可溶性固形物含量以及单粒重量均比正常植株显著降低。研究发现,当‘阳光玫瑰’葡萄植株叶片发生黄化后,其叶片叶绿素含量下降,叶片光合作用受到抑制,植株干物质的合成受阻,进而导致植株生长发育和果实品质、产量的形成受到严重影响。

    Abstract:

    In this experiment, 4-year-old mature trees of " Shine Muscat " with chlorosis symptoms were used as experimental materials. the stem and leaf growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomical structure, fruit quality and yield of chlorosis grapevines and normal grapevines were analyzed and compared. to explore the effects of chlorosis leaves on grapevines growth, photosynthetic index, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and fruit quality. The purpose of this study is to provide a reference basis for chlorosis correction cultivation of grapevines. The results showed that: (1) Compared with normal grapevines, the leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size, leaf weight, new shoot length and branch thickness of chlorosis grapevines decreased significantly, (2) Compared with normal grapevines, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of chlorosis grape leaves decreased significantly, while intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased significantly. (3) The initial fluorescence (Fo), minimum fluorescence yield (Fo"), maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), relative electron transfer rate (ETR) and actual photosynthetic quantum yield Y (Ⅱ) of chlorosis grape leaves were significantly lower than those of normal grapevines. (4) The leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness and palisade-sea ratio of chlorosis grapevines were significantly higher than those of normal grapevines. the thickness of upper epidermis and sponge tissue were significantly lower than those of normal grapevines. (5) The fruit yield, ear weight, fruit size, soluble solids content and single grain weight of chlorosis grapevines were significantly lower than those of normal grapevines. It was found that when the leaves of " Shine Muscat " grape were chlorosis, the chlorophyll content decreased, the photosynthesis of leaves was inhibited, and the synthesis of dry matter of grapevines was hindered. As a result, the growth and development of grape plant and the formation of fruit quality and yield were seriously affected.

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王绍祖,樊秀彩,张颖,等.叶片黄化对葡萄生理和果实品质的影响[J].西北植物学报,2023,43(8):1352-1358

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  • 收稿日期:2022-11-04
  • 最后修改日期:2023-06-05
  • 录用日期:2023-05-07
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-09-08
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