影响月季花瓣呈色的理化因子及花色苷组分分析
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南阳师范学院 生命科学与农业工程学院

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河南省科技厅科技攻关项目(202102110078);河南省研究生教育改革与质量提升工程项目(YJS2021JD17)


Analysis of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anthocyanin Components Affecting the Colors of Rose Petals
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Postgraduate Education Reform and Quality Improvement Project of Henan Province, Grant No. YJS2021JD17 and the Henan Provincial Department of Science and Technology Research Project, Grant No. 202102110078.

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    摘要:

    【目的】通过对影响月季花瓣呈色的各理化因子的定量评价及其相关性分析,探讨了月季花色的形成机理,可为花色育种提供理论参考和受体品种,对于探究花色形成机理和种质创新具有重要意义。【方法】以8个不同花色的月季品种为试验材料,分别对其花瓣颜色参数、细胞液pH值、金属离子含量、总花色苷含量、总黄酮含量和总叶绿素含量等理化指标进行测定和比较,并对花色苷组分进行定性和定量分析。【结果】结果表明:(1)不同花色月季的理化因子间存在显著差异,其中细胞液pH值、Fe3+、Ca2+、Al3+含量以及总花色苷、总黄酮含量等因子与花瓣颜色的形成密切相关,但总花色苷含量和总黄酮含量的变化起直接作用,金属离子及细胞液pH值等因素通过改变花色素结构来影响花色。(2)8种月季花瓣中所含有的花色苷组分主要为矢车菊类和天竺葵类糖苷,黄酮类物质主要为槲皮素及山奈酚的糖基化、酰基化等衍生物。其中,矢车菊素-3,5-葡萄糖苷在月季中占主体地位,主要调控紫红色花朵的形成;其次是天竺葵素-3,5-葡萄糖苷,其主要调控橙色、红色花朵的形成。黄色花朵中花色苷含量很少,主要受类胡萝卜素的调控;橙色花朵受花色苷和类胡萝卜素的双重调控;白色花朵中几乎不含有花色苷。芦丁在8个月季品种中均大量存在,但与花瓣形成无显著相关关系。(3)对8种月季花瓣中花色苷组分进行聚类分析时发现,粉紫色品种‘薰衣草花环’以极高的芦丁含量和少量的花色苷含量始终单独聚为一类。【结论】研究表明,花色苷的种类和含量直接影响月季的花色,黄酮类物质则辅助花色苷的形成,而细胞液pH值、Fe3+、Ca2+、Al3+含量等因子间接影响花色。在所选择的8个品种月季中,粉紫色品种‘薰衣草花环’以其优异的花色苷组分及较高的细胞液pH成为最适合进行花色改良的受体品种。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】 The study not only explored the mechanism of flower colour formation in rose but also provided theoretical references and receptor cultivars for flower colour breeding, by the quantitative evaluation and correlation analysis of the physicochemical factors affecting the coloration of rose petals. There was of great significance for exploring the mechanism of flower color formation and germplasm innovation. 【Methods】 8 cultivars of rose with different flower colors were used as experimental materials to measure and compare the physicochemical indexes such as petal color parameter, pH value of petal cell, metal ions content, total anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, and total chlorophyll content, etc., and the anthocyanin components qualitatively and quantitatively were analyzed. 【Results】 Results showed: (1) There were significant differences between the physicochemical factors of different flower colors of roses, among which the factors such as pH value of petal cell, Fe3+, Ca2+, Al3+ content, and the total anthocyanin content and total flavonoids content were closely related to the formation of petal color, but the changes in the content of total flavonoids and total anthocyanin played direct roles, and the factors such as metal ions and pH value of petal cell affected the flower color by changing the structure of the anthocyanidin. (2) The anthocyanin components contained in the petals of the 8 roses were mainly compounds formed by the glycosidation of cyanidin and pelargonidin; and the flavonoids were mainly derivatives such as glycosylated or acylated of quercetin and kaempferol. Among them, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside dominated in the roses and mainly regulated the formation of purplish-red flowers; followed by pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, which mainly regulated the formation of orange and red flowers. Yellow flowers contained very little anthocyanin and were mainly regulated by carotenoids; orange flowers were dually regulated by both anthocyanin and carotenoids; and white flowers contained almost no anthocyanin. Rutin was abundant in all 8 rose cultivars, but there was no significant correlation with petal formation. (3) The cluster analysis of the anthocyanin components in 8 rose petals revealed that the pink-purple cultivar ''Lavender Flower Circus'' was always clustered in a separate group with high rutin content and small anthocyanin content. 【Conclusion】 It was shown that the type and content of anthocyanins directly affected the flower colour of rose, while flavonoids assisted in the formation of anthocyanin, and factors such as pH value of petal cell, Fe3+, Ca2+ and Al3+ content indirectly affected the flower colour. Among the 8 selected cultivars of rose, the pink-purple cultivar ''Lavender Flower Circus'' was the most suitable recipient cultivar for flower colour improvement due to its excellent anthocyanin composition and high pH value of petal cell.

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袁美静,马誉,巫瑞,等.影响月季花瓣呈色的理化因子及花色苷组分分析[J].西北植物学报,2024,44(2):255-269

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  • 收稿日期:2023-09-14
  • 最后修改日期:2023-10-22
  • 录用日期:2023-11-22
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-19
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