三江源区沼泽湿地退化过程中植被变化特征及评价指标体系
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引用本文:石明明,周秉荣,多杰卓么,苏淑兰,张帅旗,马盼盼.三江源区沼泽湿地退化过程中植被变化特征及评价指标体系[J].西北植物学报,2020,40(10):1751~1758
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石明明1,2,周秉荣1,2*,多杰卓么1,3,苏淑兰1,2,张帅旗1,2,马盼盼4 (1 青海省防灾减灾重点实验室, 西宁 8100012 青海省气象科学研究所, 西宁 8100013 青海省黄南州气象局, 青海同仁 8113014 青海大学 农牧学院, 西宁 810016) 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0501903)
中文摘要:湿地退化评价指标体系研究是湿地退化研究的重要科学问题,该研究以隆宝高寒沼泽湿地为例,分析了不同退化程度湿地植被的变化特征,并利用主成分分析法以多个植被指标构建了湿地退化的植被评价指数。结果表明:(1)随着湿地退化程度加剧,沼生植物重要值减小,湿中生植物重要值增大,植物群落由小苔草(Carex parva)群落向藏嵩草(Kobresia tibetica)群落演替。(2)随着湿地退化程度加剧,物种多样性指数、均匀度指数和丰富度均逐渐增大,其中,重度退化阶段与未退化阶段间差异显著(P<0.05)。(3)地上生物量随着湿地退化显著降低(P<0.05),而地下生物量则呈先增加后降低的变化趋势,其中,在10~20 cm和20~30 cm土层,重度退化阶段与轻度退化阶段间均差异显著(P<0.05)。(4)主成分分析显示,9个植物群落指标简化为第1和第2主成分,累计解释量达91.7%。第一主成分上盖度、地上生物量、沼生植物重要值和中生植物重要值具有较高载荷,达0.9以上,对于湿地退化的指示性较好。(5)不同退化阶段的湿地植被评价指数(SVEI)分别为,未退化阶段-3.23~-1.98,轻度退化阶段-0.54~0.51,重度退化阶段2.15~3.26。研究认为,利用多个植被指标构建的湿地退化植被评价指数可以很好地指示隆宝湿地的退化程度,且湿地植被评价指数值越大,湿地退化越严重;不同退化程度湿地的植被评价指数阈值为:未退化阶段SVEI<-1,轻度退化阶段-1≤SVEI≤1,重度退化阶段SVEI>1。
中文关键词:湿地退化  植被特征  植被评价指标  高寒沼泽湿地
 
Characteristics of Vegetation and Its Evaluation Index System in the Swamp Degradation Process over Three river Resource Region
Abstract:The evaluation index system of swamp degradation is an important scientific issue in swamp degradation research. We used Longbao swamp areas to investigate the changes of vegetation during degradation and use principal component analysis method with multiple vegetation indexes to construct the vegetation evaluation index of swamp degradation. The results showed that: (1) the importance value of the helophyte decreased at the degradation process of swamp, but importance values of the hygrophyte and mesophyte had an increase. Carex parva, the dominant plant in the non degradation and light degradation was succeeded by Kobresia tibetica in the heavy degradation. (2) The diversity index, evenness index and species richness of plant community increased with the degradation of the swamp, and the difference was significant between the non degradation and heavy degradation (P<0.05). (3) The aboveground biomass decreased significantly with swamp degradation (P<0.05). The belowground biomass in the 0-30 cm soil layer showed a change trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the degradation of the swamp, in which the heavy degradation in 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil layers were significantly less than the light degradation (P<0.05). (4) Principal component analysis showed that the nine plant community indices were simplified into the first and second principal components, with the cumulative percentage of variation explained reaching 91.7%. The coverage, aboveground biomass and important values of the helophyte and the mesophyte had a higher load of more than 0.9 in the first principal component, which were well indicators of swamp degradation. (5) The swamp vegetation evaluation indexes (SVEI) are -3.23 ~ -1.98 in the non degradation, -0.54 ~ 0.51 in the light degradation and 2.15 ~ 3.26 in the heavy degradation, respectively. The present results suggest that the swamp vegetation evaluation index established by using multiple vegetation indexes could well indicate the degradation degree of Longbao swamp. The higher the SVEI value showed the more severe degradation of swamp. SVEI<-1 represented the non degradation, -1≤SVEI≤1 represented the light degradation, SVEI>1 represented the heavy degradation.
keywords:swamp degradation  vegetation characteristics  vegetation evaluation index  alpine swamp
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