5种新疆苹果资源的果实品质性状比较与评价
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引用本文:王 迪,童盼盼,张亚若,王 龙,徐 强,王江波.5种新疆苹果资源的果实品质性状比较与评价[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(3):416~430
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王 迪1,2,童盼盼1,2,张亚若1,2,王 龙1,2,徐 强3,4,王江波1,2,5* (1 塔里木大学 植物科学学院新疆阿拉尔 8433002 塔里木大学 南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆阿拉尔 8433003 华中农业大学 园艺林学学院武汉 4300704 园艺植物生物学教育部重点实验室武汉 4300705 新疆生产建设兵团塔里木盆地生物资源保护利用重点实验室新疆阿拉尔 843300) 
基金项目:新疆生产建设兵团科技合作计划(2020BC005);
中文摘要:选择5种果皮和果肉颜色不同的新疆苹果地方特色资源克孜阿尔玛、卡拉阿尔玛、阿克阿尔玛、伊犁野苹果、柠檬海棠,以栽培品种富士为对照,通过果实外观品质、内在品质、营养品质和香气品质4个方面的指标进行品质精细化评价,并考察了红肉苹果果肉花青苷合成途径相关基因的表达情况,以明确新疆苹果地方资源不同果实品质指标的差异,为新疆苹果地方资源的合理利用提供资料。结果表明:(1)5种特色资源均为中、小果型苹果,其中红肉品种克孜阿尔玛的外观品质优于栽培品种富士,而柠檬海棠外观品质指标均处于最低水平。(2)阿克阿尔玛的糖、酸含量均显著低于富士,柠檬海棠的酸含量高于富士及其他品种。(3)伊犁野苹果的果肉硬度显著高于富士,而红肉资源品种的果肉硬度均低于富士,肉质松软、不耐储运,但其总酚、类黄酮含量最为丰富,抗氧化能力最强,均显著高于栽培品种富士。(4)香气品质中,红皮资源卡拉阿尔玛的挥发性物质种类及含量最为丰富,其含量高于最低的栽培品种富士近2倍,红肉资源的挥发性物质含量最低;红肉资源的挥发性物质以醇类为主,而红皮资源卡拉阿尔玛、伊犁野苹果和柠檬海棠以醛类物质为主。(5)主成分分析显示,各个新疆苹果地方资源营养、香气品质等综合品质表现为:克孜阿尔玛>卡拉阿尔玛>阿克阿尔玛>富士>伊犁野苹果>柠檬海棠。(6)红肉苹果的果肉花青苷合成途径相关基因表达分析表明,其果肉花青苷积累过程中的关键基因是UFGT
中文关键词:新疆苹果  地方资源  果实品质  香气  花青苷合成
 
Comparison and Evaluation of Fruit Quality Traits of Five Apple Resources from Xinjiang
Abstract:Five Xinjiang apple local resources with different colours of skin and flesh, Kizi Alma, Kara Alma, Ak Alma, Ili Wild Apple and Lemon Begonia, were selected for quality refinement evaluation by four indicators of fruit appearance quality, inner quality, nutritional quality and aroma quality, and the expression of genes related to the anthocyanin synthesis pathway in the flesh of red fleshed apples was investigated. The differences between different fruit quality indicators of local apple resources in Xinjiang were clarified to provide information for the rational use of local apple resources in Xinjiang. The results showed that: (1) all the five featured resource varieties were medium and small fruited apples, among which the red fleshed Kizi Alma had better appearance quality than the cultivar Fuji, while Lemon Begonia had the lowest appearance quality index. (2) The sugar and acid contents of Ak Alma was significantly lower than that of Fuji, while the acid content of Lemon Begonia was higher than that of Fuji and other varieties. (3) The flesh hardness of Ili Wild Apple was significantly higher than that of Fuji, while the flesh hardness of the red fleshed resource varieties were all lower in flesh hardness than that of Fuji, with flabby flesh and less resistance to storage and transportation, while they were the richest in total phenols and flavonoids and had the strongest antioxidant capacity, all significantly higher than that of cultivar Fuji. (4) In terms of aroma quality, the red skinned resource Kara Alma contained the richest variety and content of volatile substances, with its content nearly twice that of the lowest cultivar Fuji, and the red fleshed resource had the lowest contents of volatile substances. The volatile substances of the red flesh resources were dominated by alcohols, while the red skin resources Cara Alma, Ili Wild Apple and Lemon Begonia were dominated by aldehydes. (5) Principal component analysis showed that the overall quality performance of each Xinjiang apple local resource in terms of nutrition and aroma quality was: KZARM > KLARM > AKARM > FS > YLYPG > NMHT. (6) The expression of genes related to the anthocyanin synthesis pathway in the flesh of red flesh apples indicated that the key gene in the process of flesh anthocyanin accumulation was UFGT.
keywords:Xinjiang apple  local resources  fruit quality  aroma  anthocyanin synthesis
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