不同光周期对西红花开花和花丝品质的效应比较
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引用本文:朱 娇,张永春,周 琳,杨柳燕.不同光周期对西红花开花和花丝品质的效应比较[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(3):431~438
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作者单位
朱 娇,张永春,周 琳,杨柳燕* (上海市农业科学院林木果树研究所上海 201403) 
基金项目:上海市科委项目(19391901000)
中文摘要:为筛选促进西红花开花和提高花丝品质的最佳光周期,以3种不同规格(20~25 g、25~30 g、30~35 g)西红花种球为材料,设置4种光周期处理(8 h/16 h、10 h/14 h、12 h/12 h、14 h/10 h),考察光周期对西红花种球鲜重变化、主芽生长、展叶数量、开花后营养物质含量以及花朵性状和花丝品质的效应。结果表明:(1)光周期8/16 h最有利于促进西红花主芽生长、增加展叶的种球数量。(2)光周期8 h/16 h和12 h/12 h下的西红花花朵直径大且前5 d开花数量多。(3)不同光周期对西红花苷含量、花丝干重、鲜重、折干率、含水量等花丝品质无显著影响。(4)西红花开花后种球中可溶性糖、淀粉、可溶性蛋白等营养物质含量在光周期8 h/16 h处理下较高,而在光周期12 h/12 h和14 h/10 h处理下较低。研究认为该试验条件下适合西红花生长的最佳光周期是8 h/16 h(昼/夜),此光周期有利于西红花生长、促进初期提前开花,然而对花丝品质无明显影响。
中文关键词:西红花  光周期  开花  品质
 
Comparison on the Effect of Different Photoperiods on Flowering and Stigma Quality of Saffron
Abstract:The objective of this research was to select the best photoperiod that improves Crocus sativus flower and stigma quality. In this study, the growth characteristics, flower characteristics, saffron stigma quality and value were determined with three weights of saffron corm (20-25 g, 25-30 g, 30-35 g per corm) under 8 h/16 h, 10 h/14 h, 12 h/12 h, 14 h/10 h four photoperiod treatments. Results showed that: (1) 8 h/16 h treatment obviously accelerated apical bud height growth, increased the number of corms with exposed leaves. (2) It had larger flower diameters, increased flower quantities, advanced flowering time in first five days with 8 h/16 h and 12 h/12 h photoperiods. (3) There was no significantly different in stigma crocin, stigma dried weight, stigma fresh weight, the percentage of stigma dry weight on fresh flower weight and water contents under different photoperiods. (4) The contents of soluble sugar, starch, soluble protein increased in 8 h/16 h and 10 h/14 h photoperiods, and decreased in 12 h/12 h and 14 h/10 h treatments. In conclusion, our results indicated that 8/16 h photoperiod was the best for the saffron which benefits to saffron growth and advanced flowering time in early flowering period. However, there was no significant effect on saffron stigma value with different photoperiods.
keywords:Crocus sativus  photoperiod  flowering  quality
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