年龄效应对香樟古树程序性衰老的影响
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引用本文:薛光宇,魏茂胜,陈新艳,许会敏,陈 辉,黄蓝明,冯金玲.年龄效应对香樟古树程序性衰老的影响[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(3):461~472
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作者单位
薛光宇1,魏茂胜2,陈新艳2,许会敏3,陈 辉1,黄蓝明1,冯金玲1* (1 福建农林大学 林学院福州 3500022 三明市园林中心福建三明 3650003 中国农业大学 生物学院北京 100083) 
基金项目:福建省建设厅科技项目(KH180011A)
中文摘要:以福建省三明市6个树龄阶段(0~49、50~149、150~349、350~549、550~749和 750~900 a)香樟为研究对象,通过分析其生长发育规律、形态学和生理特征的变化,结合曲线拟合与遗传算法筛选表征衰老的相关指标,评价树龄与衰老的相关性,探讨香樟古树衰老机制,为香樟年龄预测、古树复壮和保护提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)年龄极显著地影响着古香樟的植株形态、叶片解剖结构及生理机能等生长发育指标,并以生理指标的年龄效应最大,其次为植株形态指标,最小的是解剖结构指标。(2)香樟呈现出程序性衰老的特征为:叶片细胞在130 a、叶片解剖结构和生理代谢在400 a、树皮厚度和新梢粗度在 450 a先后进入衰老阶段,但香樟树体的离心生长(梢长、冠幅和胸径)在0~900 a内仍一直处于旺盛生长,还未进入衰老阶段。(3)冠幅和新叶超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性可作为单指标来评价香樟独立木的衰老程度,树皮厚度、冠幅、新叶SOD活性、多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性和栅栏组织与海绵组织比为参数构成的模型可作为古香樟年龄预测模型。研究认为,古香樟的保护和复壮,应先从叶片细胞着手,提高其生理功能,特别是提高其抗氧化能力,保护叶细胞结构完整,以保障叶片处在持续高效的光合状态。
中文关键词:香樟  古树  衰老机制  年龄效应  树龄预测
 
Effect of Age on Programmed Senescence of Cinnamomum camphora Tree
Abstract:In current research, six different age stages (0-49, 50-149, 150-349, 350-549, 550-749 and 750-900 a) of Cinnamomum camphora trees were investigated. We analyzed the dynamic changes of tree growth indicators, new leaves anatomical indexes, and physiological indexes by curve fitting and genetic algorithm, explored the law of C. camphora growth and development, and the senescence mechanism of C. camphora trees, screened senescence leading indicators, evaluated the degree of senescence and judged the tree age, to provide theoretical basis for age prediction, rejuvenation and protection of ancient C. camphora trees. The results showed that: (1) the tree age had a significant influence on the growth and development of C. camphora trees, which was reflected in the plant morphology, structure and physiological function, and the age effect had the largest influence on the physiological index, followed by the growth index of tree body, and the smallest on the anatomical index. (2) C. camphora tree is in the programmed senescence, according to which leaf cells in 130 a, leaf structure and physiological metabolism in 400 a, bark thickness and new shoot diameter in 450 a has entered the stage of senescence, while the eccentric growth of the trees (shoot length, crown width and DBH) is still in vigorous growth within 0-900 a, not entering the senescence stage. (3) Crown width and new leaves SOD activity can be used as single indexes to evaluate the senescence degree of C. camphora independent tree, and the model composed of bark thickness, crown width, new leaves SOD activity, PPO activity, and palisade tissue and spongy tissue ratio can be used as age prediction model of ancient C. camphora trees. Thus, the protection and rejuvenation of ancient C. camphora trees should start from leaf cells, improving their physiological function, especially antioxidant capacity, protecting the integrity of leaf cell structure, in order to ensure leaves in a continuous and efficient state of photosynthesis.
keywords:Cinnamomum camphora  ancient tree  senescence mechanism  age effect  tree age prediction
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