基于孢粉记录研究长白山最近两次火山爆发后的植被演替特征
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引用本文:王妙雪,刘琪璟,秦立厚.基于孢粉记录研究长白山最近两次火山爆发后的植被演替特征[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(3):493~500
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作者单位
王妙雪,刘琪璟*,秦立厚 (北京林业大学 林学院北京 100083) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31670436)
中文摘要:利用不同时期土壤孢粉组成推断长白山火山爆发后的植被演替规律,还原该区域植被群落变化过程,对于揭示该研究区不同时期植被演替规律具有重要意义。该研究通过对长白山最近两次火山爆发后形成的土壤剖面所含的孢粉组成进行分析,揭示火山爆发后高山带的植被变化特征。结果表明:(1)两次火山爆发后的植被演替具有相似的过程,即孢子植物阶段、草本植物阶段及木本植物阶段。(2)最近一次火山爆发后的海拔1 800 m处演替过程为:苔藓蕨类群落→草本群落→岳桦(Betula ermanii)群落。(3)较早一次火山爆发后的海拔2 050 m处演替过程为:苔藓蕨类群落→草本群落→岳桦群落;海拔2 160 m处演替过程为:苔藓蕨类群落→草本群落→偃松(Pinus pumila)群落。研究认为,火山爆发对植被产生重大破坏作用,使高山林线下降、偃松群落消失;最后一次火山爆发后经历1 000多年,高山林线仍未恢复到火山爆发前的水平。
中文关键词:长白山  火山爆发  演替  孢粉
 
Vegetation Succession Characteristics Based on Palynological Records after Last
Abstract:Using soil pollen composition in different periods to infer the vegetation succession law after the eruption of the Changbai Mountain volcano to restore the change process of the vegetation community in this area is of great significance for revealing the vegetation succession law in the study area at different periods. We analyzed the sporopollen composition in soil profiles developed after the last two major eruptions in Changbai Mountain, and deduced the vegetation succession in the alpine zone. The results showed that: (1) the vegetation succession after the two eruptions had a similar process, including the sporophytes stage, the herbaceous plants stage and the woody plants stage. (2) The succession process at altitude 1 800 m in the north slope after the most recent volcanic eruption was predicted as: bryophyte community→herb community→Betula ermanii community. (3) In the south slope after the penultimate eruption, the succession process at altitude 2 050 m was derived as: bryophyte community→herb community→Betula ermanii community, while at altitude 2 160 m, it was: bryophyte community→herb community→Pinus pumila community. The studies showed that the eruption of the volcano had caused major damages to vegetation, which caused the retreating of alpine timberline and the disappearance of Pinus pumila community. More than 1 000 years after the last volcanic eruption, the alpine timberline has not recovered to the level before the big event.
keywords:Changbai Mountain  volcanic eruption  vegetation succession  sporopollen
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