山茱萸果实发育过程中单宁物质的分布与积累特征
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引用本文:陈旋勐,张 岗,高 静,颜永刚,魏 瑶,陈 莹.山茱萸果实发育过程中单宁物质的分布与积累特征[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(11):1834~1842
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作者单位
陈旋勐,张 岗,高 静,颜永刚,魏 瑶,陈 莹* (陕西中医药大学 药学院/陕西省秦岭中草药应用开发工程技术研究中心陕西咸阳 712046) 
基金项目:陕西中医药大学“秦药”品质评价与资源开发学科创新团队项目(2019 QN01)
中文摘要:选取不同发育时期的山茱萸果实作为研究对象,采用果实形态观察法、显微及超微技术、组织化学定位法以及紫外分光光度计法对山茱萸果实发育过程中单宁物质分布及积累特征进行观察分析,并以单因素ANOVA检验不同发育时期单宁含量的差异,以揭示单宁物质在山茱萸果实发育中的变化规律,为山茱萸果实涩味调控机制研究提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)山茱萸果实发育过程中果皮颜色和果实体积变化明显,可将其发育过程划分为幼果期、中果期、成熟期3个时期;单宁物质主要分布在山茱萸果实中果皮的单宁细胞中。(2)在山茱萸果实发育过程中单宁细胞数目呈先增后减的变化趋势,幼果期单宁细胞从无到有,随着果实发育单宁细胞数目不断增多,至中果期单宁细胞数目开始减少。(3)单宁含量的变化规律与单宁细胞数目的变化一致,单宁含量在花后120 d时达到最多,随后逐渐减少。(4)单宁物质首先在细胞质的小液泡中积累,中央大液泡形成后则为单宁物质积累的主要场所,其积累形态主要有颗粒状、不规则状和板块状3种;单宁细胞中线粒体数目较多,中果期后期及成熟期在中央大液泡液泡膜附近有电子致密物质积累。研究认为,山茱萸果实中中果皮薄壁细胞为单宁物质积累的专属细胞,即单宁细胞,单宁物质的合成运输与液泡、囊泡以及线粒体的作用密切相关;成熟期山茱萸果实总单宁含量降低,涩味降低,表明单宁物质积累的动态变化与植物对环境的适应性和果实涩味息息相关,可结合代谢组和转录组的方法对山茱萸果实中单宁物质的合成机制进行进一步研究。
中文关键词:山茱萸  单宁物质  单宁细胞  发育
 
Dynamic Changes of Tannins during Fruit Developmentof Cornus officinalis
Abstract:The fruits of Cornus officinalis in different developmental stages were selected as the research object. The distribution and accumulation of tannin during the development of C. officinalis fruit were studied by means of fruit morphology observation, microscopic and ultramicro technology, histochemical localization and ultraviolet spectrophotometer, and the difference of tannin content in different development stages was tested by single factor ANOVA. The purpose is to provide theoretical basis for the study of tannin in the development of C. officinalis fruit. The results showed that: (1) there are obvious changes in peel color and fruit volume during the fruit development of C. officinalis, which can be divided into three stages: young fruit stage, middle fruit stage and mature fruit stage. Tannin was mainly distributed in the tannin cells of the pericarp of C. officinalis fruit. (2) During the fruit development, the number of tannin cells increased at first and then decreased. In the young fruit stage, the number of tannin cells increased with the fruit development, and began to decrease in the middle fruit stage. (3) The change trend of tannin content in line with the number of tannin cells changed, and the tannin content reached the maximum at 120 days after anthesis, and then decreased gradually. (4) Tannins first accumulated in the small vacuoles of cytoplasm, and then the central vacuole was the main place where tannins accumulate. Tannins mainly have three accumulation forms: granular, irregular and plate. Tannin cells have more mitochondria. In the late middle fruit stage and mature fruit stage, electron dense substances accumulated near the vacuole membrane of the central vacuole. It is considered that the mesocarp parenchyma cells in C. officinalis fruit are the exclusive cells for tannin accumulation, the synthesis and transportation of tannin are closely related to vacuoles, vesicles and mitochondria. The astringency of fruits and the total tannin content decrease at mature stage, and the dynamic change of tannin accumulation is closely related to the adaptability of plants to the environment and the astringency of fruits. The synthesis mechanism of tannin in C. officinalis fruit can be further studied by combining metabolomics and transcriptome methods.
keywords:Cornus officinalis  tannin  tannin cell  development
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