春梢叶损失对刺梨生长和果实产量与品质的影响机理分析
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引用本文:樊卫国,潘学军,陈 红,穆 瑞,官纪元,周禹佳.春梢叶损失对刺梨生长和果实产量与品质的影响机理分析[J].西北植物学报,2021,41(11):1863~1875
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作者单位
樊卫国1,潘学军1,陈 红1,穆 瑞1,官纪元2,周禹佳1 (1 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心贵阳 5500252 贵州省植物园贵阳 550004) 
基金项目:国家林业和草原局林业科技创新平台建设(2019133002)
中文摘要:2017年以3年生的‘贵农5号’刺梨(Rosa roxburghii Tratt.)为材料,于5月初开花期前采用人工摘叶的方法,对试验树当年春梢进行失叶率20%、40%、60%和80% 处理,以不摘叶的植株为对照(CK),研究失叶后3年中不同失叶率处理对刺梨新梢生长、叶片营养元素含量、果实产量及品质的影响机理,分析摘叶后30 d内的失叶春梢中内源激素含量,存留叶的净光合速率(Pn)和蒸腾速率(Tr),失叶当年刺梨果实中影响维生素C和黄酮合成积累的关键酶(GalLDH、MDHAR、DHAR、AAO、APX和PAL、C4H、4CL、CHS)的活性,探究失叶对刺梨生长和果实产量、品质及其相关生理特性的影响机理,为刺梨合理采叶量的确定和因灾失叶的损失评估提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)刺梨春梢失叶后会促进当年夏梢萌发,增加夏梢数量,抑制当年秋梢和翌年、第3年的新梢生长。(2)在摘叶后的30 d内,失叶春梢中IAA和ABA含量迅速降低,GA1+3和ZR含量迅速增加,内源激素的变化对当年夏梢的萌发具有协同促进作用。(3)在摘叶后15 d内,春梢存留叶的Pn迅速增强,之后迅速减弱,失叶春梢存留叶在短期内具有明显的光合作用补偿反应,但难以长期持续。(4)春梢失叶率超过20%后,会导致刺梨植株的养分损失,尤其是叶中的N、P、K、Mg元素的损失极为严重,导致树势衰弱,新梢的正常生长受到抑制。(5)在刺梨果实维生素C和类黄酮物质合成积累的关键时期,果实中GalLDH、PAL、C4H、4CL、CHS的活性均随失叶率的增大而明显减弱,果实中的维生素C和类黄酮物质的含量也随之明显减少。研究发现,春梢失叶率过大会明显降低刺梨叶中的养分含量和果实的产量及品质,且这种不利影响可持续多年;在春季对果叶兼用的刺梨嫩叶进行采收利用时,采叶量应控制在20%内。
中文关键词:刺梨  叶片损失  果实产量  果实品质  影响机理。
 
Influence Mechanism of Spring Shoot Leaf Loss on Growth, Fruit Yield and Quality of Rosa roxburghii
Abstract:In this study, Rosa roxburghii ‘Guinong 5’ of three year old were used as the materials in 2017. Before the flowering period in early May of the same year, the experimental trees were treated with manual priming leaves which rated of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the spring shoots of the same year, and the plants without priming leaves were used as control (CK). The effects of different leaf loss rate treatments on shoot growth, leaf nutrient content, fruit yield and quality of R. roxburghii in 3 years after leaf loss were studied. The contents of endogenous hormones in the spring shoots, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr) of the remaining leaves within 30 days after priming leaf loss, the key enzymes affecting Vitamin C synthesis and accumulation (GalLDH, MDHAR, DHAR, AAO and APX), and key enzymes affecting flavonoid synthesis and accumulation (PAL, C4H, 4CL and CHS) of R. roxburghii fruit in the year were measured. The purposes are to explore the influencemechanism of leaf loss on the growth, fruit yield, quality and related physiological characteristics of R. roxburghii Tratt and to provide a theory basis for the determination of reasonable leaves collection amount and the assessment of the loss of leaves due to disaster of R. roxburghii. The results showed that: (1) the loss of R. roxburghii leaves in spring could promote the germination of summer shoots of the same year, increase the number of summer shoots, and inhibit the growth of new shoots in autumn of the same year, following year and the third year. (2) Within 30 days after priming leaf loss, the contents of IAA and ABA of spring shoot decreased rapidly, while the contents of GA1+3 and ZR increased rapidly. The changes of endogenous hormone had a synergistic promoting effect on the germination of the summer shoots in the same year. The remaining leaves of the spring shoots had an obvious short term photosynthetic enhancement compensation reaction. (3) The Pn of the remaining leaves of the spring shoots increased rapidly within 15 days after priming leaf loss, then decreased rapidly, and the photosynthetic compensation reaction could not be sustained in the long term. (4) After the leaf loss rate more than 20% in spring shoots would lead to the nutrient loss of R. roxburghii, especially the loss of N, P, K and Mg elements in the leaves were serious, which inhibited the tree potential and the growth of new shoots. (5) In the critical period of the synthesis and accumulation of Vitamin C and flavonoids in R. roxburghii fruits, the activities of GalLDH, PAL, C4H, 4CL and CHS in fruits were significantly decreased with the increase of the leaf loss rate, and the contents of Vitamin C and flavonoids in fruits also decreased significantly with the increase of the leaf loss rate. In this study, it was found that excessive the leaf loss rate significantly reduced the nutrients contents of leaves and fruit yield and quality, and this adverse effect could last for many years. For R. roxburghii with both fruits and leaves used, the amount of young leaves collection should be controlled within 20% in spring.
keywords:Rosa roxburghii  leaves loss  fruit yield  fruit quality  influence mechanism
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