贺兰山东麓酿酒葡萄品质成分对气象因子的响应特征
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引用本文:冯 蕊,张晓煜,李芳红,陈仁伟,刘兆宇,杨永娥.贺兰山东麓酿酒葡萄品质成分对气象因子的响应特征[J].西北植物学报,2022,42(8):1363~1372
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冯 蕊1,2,张晓煜1,2*,李芳红3,陈仁伟4,刘兆宇5,杨永娥1,2 (1 宁夏大学 农学院银川 7500212 宁夏气象科学研究所银川 7500023 宁夏农林科学院固原分院宁夏固原 7560994 中国农业大学 资源与环境学院北京 1000915 曲阜师范大学 计算机学院山东曲阜 273165) 
基金项目:宁夏自治区农业育种专项(NXNYYZ20210102);
中文摘要:基于2018-2020年宁夏贺兰山东麓14个葡萄酒庄葡萄园酿酒葡萄品质检测和气象数据,分析影响酿酒葡萄品质成分的关键气象因子,构建酿酒葡萄品质成分与气象因子的关系模型,为提高葡萄园气候资源利用效率、提高葡萄园科学管理水平、主动适应气候变化提供参考依据。结果表明:(1)气象因子是影响酿酒葡萄品质的重要指标,在葡萄生长的全生育期均对葡萄品质产生直接或间接影响,对品质影响最大的时期是7~8月和采收前一个月的气象条件。(2)酿酒葡萄浆果品质受气象因子影响程度从大到小依次为pH、花青素、可滴定酸、总酚、糖酸比、固酸比、可溶性固形物、单宁、还原性糖含量。(3)空气相对湿度及最低气温的变化对酿酒葡萄品质成分影响较大。(4)降低7月的平均空气相对湿度及提高8月的平均空气相对湿度有利于浆果pH的降低;进一步结合浆果酸含量的累积特征,实际生产中应在8月份增加葡萄园灌溉量,以降低因气候变暖导致的酿酒葡萄含糖量偏高。(5)采收前20 d的适度高温与采前10 d的高湿环境有利于葡萄浆果总酚的累积,但后者会使果实中单宁含量下降;在采收前20 d内若环境最低温及最高温均较低,则不利于花青素累积;9月到采收前的生长度日(GDD)达到280 ℃·d左右时,葡萄果实的糖酸比达到最大值。
中文关键词:赤霞珠  贺兰山东麓  气象因子  果实品质  品质成分
 
Response of Quality Components of Wine Grape in the Eastern Foothills of Helan Mountain to Meteorological Factors
Abstract:Based on the quality inspection and meteorological data of wine grapes from 14 wineries and vineyards at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain in Ningxia from 2018 to 2020, we analyzed the key meteorological factors affecting the quality components of wine grapes, and constructed the relationship model between the quality components of wine grapes and meteorological factors, to improve the utilization efficiency of climate resources in the garden, improve the scientific management level of vineyards, and provide reference for actively adapting to climate change. The results show that: (1) meteorological factors are important indicators that affect the quality of wine grapes. They have a direct or indirect impact on grape quality during the entire growth period of grape growth, and the period with the greatest impact on quality is July to August and the period before harvest weather conditions for the month. (2) The degree of influence of meteorological factors from large to small is pH, anthocyanin, titratable acid, total phenol, sugar acid ratio, solid acid ratio, soluble solids, tannin, reducing sugar content. (3) The changes of humidity and minimum temperature have great influence on the quality components of wine grapes. (4) Reducing the average relative air humidity in July and increasing the average relative air humidity in August is beneficial to the reduction of pH; combined with the accumulation of acid content, the amount of vineyard irrigation should be increased in August in order to reduce the impact of climate warming. The sugar content of wine grapes is high; (5) the moderate high temperature 20d before harvest and the high humidity environment 10 d before harvest are conducive to the accumulation of total phenols, but the latter will reduce the tannin content in the fruit; if the lowest temperature and highest temperature in the environment are both low 20 d before harvest, it is not conducive to the accumulation of anthocyanins; when the GDD reaches about 280 ℃·d from September to before harvesting, the sugar acid ratio reaches the maximum value.
keywords:Cabernet Sauvignon  The eastern foot of Helan Mountain  climate factor  fruit quality  quality ingredients
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