林分特征和土壤养分对林下草本物种多样性的影响
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引用本文:陈 笑,李远航,左亚凡,林 莎,初鼎晋,贺康宁.林分特征和土壤养分对林下草本物种多样性的影响[J].西北植物学报,2022,42(8):1396~1407
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作者单位
陈 笑,李远航,左亚凡,林 莎,初鼎晋,贺康宁* (北京林业大学 水土保持学院水土保持国家林业局重点实验室北京 100083) 
基金项目:青海省科技厅重点研发与转化计划(2020 SF 144 1)
中文摘要:林下草本植物是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,对维持森林群落演替和发展具有重要的生态功能。该研究以青海省互助北山林场青海云杉纯林(Ⅰ)、红桦纯林(Ⅱ)、青杨纯林(Ⅲ)、阔叶混交林(Ⅳ)和针阔叶混交林(Ⅴ)5种典型林分为研究对象,采用典型取样法在各林分选择4个20 m×20 m的样地,对样地内所有树木进行每木检尺,每个样地设置5个1 m×1 m的草本小样方,调查记录林下草本植物,并分层钻取5个小样方的土样进行分析;采用灰色关联法分析林下草本多样性与林分特征、土壤养分特征之间的关系,以明确影响林下草本物种多样性的主导因子,为该区人工林地的改造与经营提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)5种林分林下共发现草本植物86种,分属 30科 74属,其中林分Ⅴ的植物科、属、种数量均最多(25科42属49种),林分Ⅰ均最少(17科26属27种);林分Ⅰ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ中草本层均以野草莓的重要值最大(分别为 44.42%、20.29%、23.05%),林分Ⅱ、Ⅴ分别以山尖子、野草莓、黑麦草为优势种,其重要值分别为 20.97%、13.95%、13.68%和8.34%、16.83%、27.82%。(2)5种林分的林下草本物种丰富度(S)、Shannon Wiener多样性指数(D)、Simpson多样性指数(H)均差异显著(P<0.05),而Pielou均匀度指数(J)差异不显著,但SDHJ均表现为阔叶纯林(Ⅱ和Ⅲ)、混交林(Ⅳ和Ⅴ)高于针叶纯林(Ⅰ)。(3)不同林分间的林分密度 (SD)、平均胸径(DBH)、平均树高(H)、平均冠幅(CW)均无显著差异,但平均胸径、平均树高、平均冠幅在整体上表现为针阔混交林>阔叶混交林>阔叶纯林>针叶纯林。(4)土壤碱解氮(AN)、速效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、有机质(SOC)含量及酸碱度(pH)均表现为混交林和阔叶纯林高于针叶纯林,且土壤AN、AP、AK、SOC含量均随土层深度增加而降低,土壤pH值随土层深度增加而增加。(5)研究认为,森林生态系统中林下草本物种多样性对林分特征和土壤养分特征均有显著响应,林分平均胸径是影响草本多样性最主要的林分因子,碱解氮是最主要的土壤养分特征。因此,在未来林分改造中,积极改善人工林建设模式,优化林分特征,提升土壤肥力,以提高林下草本植物的多样性,维持林分的稳定和可持续发展。
中文关键词:人工林  草本物种多样性  土壤养分  林分特征  灰色关联度
 
Effects of Stand Characteristics and Soil Nutrient Characteristics on Herbaceous Diversity
Abstract:Understory herbaceous plants are an important part of forest ecosystems and have important ecological functions for maintaining the succession and development of forest communities. In this study, Picea crassifolia forest (Ⅰ), Betula albosinensis forest (Ⅱ), Populus cathayana forest (Ⅲ), Broad leaved mixed forest (Ⅳ) and Coniferous and broad leaved mixed forest (Ⅴ), these five different stand types of plantations in Huzhu Beishan Forest Farm, which located in the east of Qinghai Province, were selected as the research object. Typical sampling method was used to select four 20 m by 20 m plots in each stand, and each tree in the plot was examined. Five 1 m by 1 m herbaceous quadrats were set in each plot. Understory herbaceous plants were investigated and recorded, and soil samples of five small quadrats were collected and analyzed. Grey correlation method was used to analyze the relationship between understory herbaceous diversity and stand characteristics, soil nutrient characteristics, in order to clarify the dominant factors affecting understory herbaceous species diversity, and provide scientific basis for local plantation management. The results showed that: (1) there existed 86 herb species belonging to 74 genera of 30 families. Among them, the number of families, genera and species in type Ⅴ was the largest (49 species, 42 genera, 25 families), and that in type Ⅰ was the least (27 species, 26 genera, 17 families). In type Ⅰ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, the important values of Fragaria vesca in herb layer were the highest (44.42%, 20.29% and 23.05%, respectively). In stand Ⅱ and Ⅴ, the dominant species were Parasenecio hastatus, Fragaria vesca, and Lolium perenne, and their important values were 20.97%, 13.95%, 13.68% and 8.34%, 16.83% and 27.82%, respectively. (2) The species richness (S), Shannon Wiener diversity index (D) and Simpson diversity index (H) of the five stands were significantly different (P<0.05), but the Pielou evenness index (J) was not significantly different. These indexes were lower in conifer pure forest (Ⅰ) than those in the broad leaved pure forests (Ⅱ and Ⅲ) and mixed forests (Ⅳ and Ⅴ). (3) There were no significant differences in stand density (SD), average diameter at breast height (DBH), average tree height (H) and average crown width (CW) among different stand types, but these stand factors in different forest types decreased in order: coniferous and broad leaved mixed forest > broad leaved mixed forest > broad leaved pure forests > conifer pure forest. (4) The contents of soil alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), soil organic matter (SOC) and potential of hydrogen (pH) were higher in the mixed forests and broad leaved pure forests than those in conifer pure forest. With the increase of soil depth, the contents of AN, AP, AK, SOC decreased and pH increased. (5) The species diversity of understory herbaceous plants in the forest ecosystem responded significantly to the stand factors and soil nutrient characteristics, and DBH was the most important stand factor affecting the herb diversity, alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen is the most important soil nutrient characteristic. Therefore, in the future forest reconstruction, we should improve the artificial forest construction mode, optimize the stand factors and enhance the soil fertility, so as to improve the diversity of the herbaceous plant and maintain the stability and sustainable development of the forest ecosystem.
keywords:plantation  herbaceous plant diversity  soil nutrient  stand characteristics  grey correlation
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