栽培基质中添加砻糠灰对甜瓜生长和果实品质的影响
投稿时间:2021-05-31  修订日期:2021-08-31  点此下载全文
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作者单位邮编
李蒙 信阳农林学院园艺学院 464100
葛文静 山西农业大学园艺学院 464100
申君 信阳农林学院园艺学院 464100
刘松虎 信阳农林学院 园艺学院 464100
基金项目:信阳农林学院青年教师科研基金项目(2019LG006);2021年度河南省高等学校重点科研项目(21B210009);河南省科技攻关计划项目(172102110263);2018年度信阳农林学院专业综合改革试点建设项目(ZYZHGG201803)
中文摘要:为减少不可再生资源草炭的使用,降低无土栽培基质生产成本,以甜瓜品种“羊角蜜”为试验材料,将砻糠灰和市售成品栽培基质按照不同体积进行混配,以未添加砻糠灰的市售成品栽培基质为对照(CK),研究不同配比基质的理化性质及其对甜瓜生长、叶片叶绿素含量、光合气体交换参数以及果实品质的影响。结果表明:(1)在市售栽培基质中添加一定量的砻糠灰可显著改善基质通气状况,提高混配基质的pH、EC。(2)与对照相比,砻糠灰混配基质能够显著促进甜瓜植株的生长,其中T2(砻糠灰:市售成品栽培基质=2: 4体积比)处理下,甜瓜植株的株高、根系活力、根冠比相比于CK分别提高了14.69%、19.73%、23.08%。(3)T2处理下,甜瓜叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)显著升高。(4)T2处理甜瓜单果重比对照提高了20.3%,并且果实可溶性糖、可溶性固形物、可溶性蛋白、蔗糖、葡萄糖等含量显著增加,蔗糖合成酶(SS)活性和蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)活性有明显提高。综上可知,砻糠灰混配基质可以促进甜瓜植株生长,提高甜瓜叶片光合作用能力,改善甜瓜果实品质,并以砻糠灰:市售成品栽培基质=2: 4的混配基质配方最为适宜,可替代传统基质用于甜瓜栽培。
中文关键词:砻糠灰基质  甜瓜  生长  果实品质
 
The Effect of Adding Rice Husk Ash to the Cultivation Substrate on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Melon
Abstract:In order to reduce the use of non-renewable resources of peat and the production cost of soilless culture substrates, the melon variety "Yangjiaomi" was used as the test material, the rice husk ash and the commercial finished cultivation substrate were mixed according to different volumes, and the commercial finished cultivation substrate without added husked ash was used as CK, to study the physical and chemical properties of different substrates and their effects on melon growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters and fruit quality. The result shows: (1) Adding a certain amount of rice husk ash to the commercial finished cultivation substrate can significantly improve the aeration of the substrate and increase the pH and EC of the mixed substrate. (2) Compared with CK, the rice husk ash mixed matrix can significantly promote the growth of melon plants. Among them, under T2 (rice husk ash: commercial finished cultivation substrate = 2: 4 volume ratio) treatment, the plant height of the melon plant, root vitality and root shoot ratio increased by 14.69%, 19.73%, and 23.08%, respectively. (3) Under T2 treatment, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of melon leaves increased significantly. (4) The weight of single fruit of melon in T2 treatment increased by 20% compared with the control, and the content of fruit soluble sugar, soluble solids, soluble protein, sucrose, glucose, etc. increased significantly, sucrose synthase (SS) activity and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity has been significantly improved. In summary, the mixed matrix of rice husk ash can promote the growth of melon plants, increase the photosynthesis ability of melon leaves, and improve the quality of melon fruit. The mixed matrix formula of rice husk ash: commercial finished cultivation substrate = 2: 4 was the most suitable , can replace the traditional substrate for melon cultivation.
keywords:Rice husk ash  melon  growth  fruit quality
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