春梢叶损失对刺梨生长和果实产量、品质及其相关生理特性的影响
投稿时间:2021-06-06  修订日期:2021-06-24  点此下载全文
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作者单位邮编
樊卫国 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
潘学军 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
陈红 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
穆 瑞 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
王梦柳 贵州省六盘水市农业科学院 553000
官纪元 贵州省植物园 550004
周禹佳 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
何春丽 贵州大学 国家林业和草原局刺梨工程技术研究中心 550025
基金项目:**
中文摘要:探究叶片损失对刺梨(Rosa roxburghii Tratt.)生长和果实产量、品质及其相关生理特性的影响,为刺梨合理采叶量的确定和受灾失叶后的损失评估提供科学依据,2017年以3年生的‘贵农5号’刺梨为材料,于当年5月初开花期前采用人工摘叶的方法,对试验树当年春梢进行失叶率20%、40%、60%和80% 的处理,以不失叶的植株为对照(CK),研究失叶后3年中不同失叶量对刺梨新梢生长、叶片营养元素含量、果实产量及品质的影响,测定失叶后30d内的失叶春梢中内源激素含量、存留叶的净光合速率(Pn)和蒸腾速率(Tr),分析失叶当年刺梨果实中L-半乳糖-1,4-内酯脱氢酶(GalLDH)、单脱氢抗坏血酸还原酶(MDHAR)、脱氢抗坏血酸还原酶(DHAR)抗坏血酸氧化酶(AAO)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)和丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、肉桂酸-4-羟基化酶(C4H)、4-香豆酸辅酶A连接酶(4CL)、查尔酮合成酶(CHS)的活性及其与刺梨果实中维生素C(AsA)和总黄酮含量的关系。结果表明:刺梨春梢失叶后会促进当年夏梢萌发,增加夏梢数量,抑制当年秋梢和翌年、第3年的新梢生长。在失叶后的30d内,失叶春梢中IAA和ABA的含量迅速降低,GA1+3和ZR的含量迅速增加,内源激素的含量变化对当年夏梢的萌发具有协同促进作用。失叶春梢的存留叶具有明显的短期光合补偿反应,在失叶后15d内,春梢存留叶的Pn迅速增强,之后迅速减弱,其光合补偿反应难以长期持续。失叶春梢存留叶的Tr明显增大,水分利用速率(WUE)明显降低。春梢失叶后会导致刺梨植株的养分损失,降低叶中的营养元素含量,其中N、P、K、Mg营养元素的损失尤其严重。春梢失叶会严重降低刺梨果实产量和品质。随春梢失叶率的增大,果实产量和品质明显降低。在刺梨果实AsA和类黄酮物质合成积累的关键时期,对刺梨果实中AsA 合成积累有极其重要影响的GalLDH活性和类黄酮物质代谢合成的PAL、C4H、4CL、CHS的活性均随失叶量的增大而明显减弱, 果实中的AsA和类黄酮物质的含量也随之明显减少。失叶量超过20%会造成刺梨树体养分的大量损失,削弱树势,抑制刺梨的生长,降低刺梨果实的产量及品质,这种不利影响可持续多年。在春季采收刺梨嫩叶进行利用时,采叶量应控制在20%内。
中文关键词:刺梨  叶片损失  果实产量  品质  生理特性。
 
Effects of Spring Shoot Leaf Loss on Growth, Fruit Yield, Quality and Related Physiological Characteristics of Rosa roxburghii
Abstract:To explore the effects of leaves loss on the growth, fruit yield, quality and related physiological characteristics of Rosa roxburghii Tratt. To provide a scientific basis for the determination of reasonable leaves collection amount and the loss assessment after the leaves loss disaster of R. roxburghii. In this study, three-year-old "Guinong 5" R. roxburghii were used as the materials in 2017. Before the flowering period in early May of the same year, the experimental trees were treated with manual leaves loss which rated of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the spring shoots of the same year, and the plants without leaves loss were used as control (CK). The effects of different leaves loss amounts on the growth, leaf nutrient content, fruit yield and quality of new shoots of R. roxburghii in three years were studied. The contents of endogenous hormones, Pn and Tr of the leaves losing spring shoot within 30 days after leaves loss were measured. The activity of GalLDH, MDHAR, DHAR, AAO, APX, PAL, C4H, 4CL and CHS of R. roxburghii fruit as well as their relationship with the content of AsA and total flavonoids in the year of leaves loss were analyzed.The results showed that: the loss of R. roxburghii leaves in spring could promote the germination of summer shoots of the same year, increase the number of summer shoots, and inhibit the growth of new shoots in autumn of the same year, following year and the third year. Within 30 days after leaves loss, the contents of IAA and ABA of spring shoot after leaves loss decreased rapidly, while the contents of GA1+3 and ZR increased rapidly. The changes of endogenous hormone contents had a synergistic promoting effect on the germination of the summer shoots in the same year. The remaining leaves of the spring shoots after leaves loss had an obvious short-term photosynthetic compensation reaction. The Pn of the remaining leaves of the spring shoots increased rapidly within 15 days after leaves loss, then decreased rapidly, and the photosynthetic compensation reaction could not be sustained in the long term. The Tr of the remaining leaves of the spring shoots after leaves loss increased significantly, while the WUE decreased significantly. The leaves loss of spring shoots would lead to the nutrient loss of R. roxburghii and the decrease of nutrient elements content in leaves, especially the loss of N, P, K and Mg were serious. The leaves loss of spring shoot would seriously reduce the fruit yield and quality of R. roxburghii. With the increase of leaves loss rate of spring shoot, fruit yield and quality decreased obviously. In the critical period of the synthesis and accumulation of AsA and flavonoids in R. roxburghii fruits, the activities of GalLDH, which had an important effect on the synthesis and accumulation of AsA in R. roxburghii fruits, and the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL and CHS, which were metabolized by flavonoids, were significantly decreased with the increase of leaves loss. The contents of AsA and flavonoids in R. roxburghii fruits also decreased significantly with the increase of leaves loss. Leaves loss which more than 20% would cause a large loss of nutrients in R. roxburghii tree, weaken the tree potential, inhibit the growth of R. roxburghii, and reduce the yield and quality of R. roxburghii fruit, and this adverse effect could last for many years. When the young leaves of R. roxburghii are harvested for use in spring, the amount of leaves collected should be controlled within 20%.
keywords:Rosa roxburghii  leaves loss  fruit yield  quality  physiological characteristics.
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