山黧豆研究160年:研究历程、进展与展望
投稿时间:2021-08-26  修订日期:2021-09-02  点此下载全文
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作者单位邮编
徐全乐 西北农林科技大学生命科学学院 712100
蒋景龙 陕西理工大学生物科学与工程学院 陕西汉中 723000
焦成瑾 天水师范学院生物工程与技术学院 甘肃天水 741000
张大伟 兰州大学生命科学学院/草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室 甘肃兰州 730000
Neil C. Turner 西澳大学植物遗传与育种中心,M,佩斯 西澳大利亚,澳大利亚 6009
Shiv Kumar 国际旱地农业研究中心ICARDA,摩洛哥拉巴特 PO Box 0
熊友才 兰州大学生命科学学院/草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室 甘肃兰州 730000
基金项目:陕西省自然科学基金(2020JM-167),高等学校学科创新引智计划项目(111计划)(BP0719040),中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金重点研究基地建设项目(lzujbky-2021-kb05)
中文摘要:在全球范围内曾多次发生因过量食用山黧豆导致神经中毒事件,使得国内外对于山黧豆的种植和利用存在一定的误解和偏见。山黧豆的优良农艺价值和潜在功能食品利用价值也受到一定限制。但山黧豆适应性强、分布范围广,是全球气候变化条件下农业可持续发展和地力维持的优选作物。在食品安全、生态文明建设和乡村振兴新形势下,进一步研究和挖掘利用这一古老的优良作物具有重要的战略意义。山黧豆相关研究报道可追溯到1861年,距今已有160年的历史。在同行学者的不懈努力下,山黧豆基础研究及种质资源利用等方面均取得了显著的阶段性成果。本文系统回顾了山黧豆研究160年以来的发展历程,依托历史文献进行了梳理和分析。首先,基于山黧豆神经活性物质?-ODAP的分离和鉴定、神经山黧豆中毒机制的探索、?-ODAP生物合成途径解析等重要研究节点将整个山黧豆研究进程划分为:1)山黧豆中毒因素的探索、2)神经山黧豆中毒机理解析、3)神经山黧豆中毒及?-ODAP生物学功能的再认识等三个阶段。其次,总结了山黧豆在毒理学研究、种质资源利用、品质改良基础研究等方面取得的重要进展。特别是以兰州大学为代表的中国学者在?-ODAP的分析检测、生物合成途径、山黧豆生理生态学研究及种质资源利用等重要领域的积极贡献,阐明了中国在国际山黧豆研究中的主流地位。最后,针对目前山黧豆分子生物学基础研究相对滞后、种质资源缺乏系统利用等问题进行了展望,提出了未来的重点发展方向,为山黧豆种质资源的进一步深入挖掘和应用提供参考。
中文关键词:山黧豆  β-ODAP  神经兴奋性作用  膳食平衡  功能食品
 
Researches on Lathyrus sativus L. over the Past 160 Years:Process, Progress and Prospect
Abstract:Lathyrus sativus is greatly misunderstood for the neurolathyrism epidemic worldwide in history caused via its overconsumption. That prevents the cultivation and utilization of L. sativus in spite of its good agronomic characters and potential as a functional food. However, L. sativus is an outstanding crop for sustainable agriculture and soil productivity maintenance under global climate change for its widespread and good resilience to environmental constraints. Therefore, reintroduce the under-utilized crop is of strategic importance under the background of food safety, ecological civilization and rural revitalization. Published papers on Lathyrus researches could date back to 1861, 160 years ago. Remarkable achievements were obtained on fundamental researches and germplasm utilization of L. sativus under the sustained effectors of peer scholars. This review summarizes the development history over the past 160 years on L. sativus researches based on historical documents. First, three aspects of progresses are sort out around the core of neurolathyrism, including 1) the factors causing neurolathyrism, 2) investigating the mechanisms of neurolathyrism, and 3) rethinking neurolathyrism epidemic and the biological functions of ?-ODAP respectively with the highlighted purification and identification of neuroactive ?-ODAP, investigation of mechanisms of neurolathyrism, pathways on ?-ODAP biosynthesis, etc. Second, recent progress in neurotoxicology, germplasm evaluation and utilization, fundation researches on genetic improvement of L. sativus etc. are also reviewed. And contributions of China scholars considered Lanzhou University as the representative on ?-ODAP detection and biosynthetic pathway, physiological ecology, germplasm utilization of L. sativus and so on were analyzed especially. That suggested the internationally dominant position of China on Lathyrus researches. At last, the key directions for future research are previewed based on the current situation of L. sativus with lagging on genetic and molecular researches and lacking of comprehensive utilization, etc to develop novel approaches and provide reference for germplasm utilization of L. sativus.
keywords:Lathyrus sativus  b-N-oxalyl-L-a,b-diaminopropionicacid (β-ODAP)  excitatory neurotoxicity  well-balanced diet  functional food
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