斗竹的开花生物学特性研究
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LIU Haiwen1,2, ZHAO Wanqi1,2, XIAO Jiao1,2, GUO Chunce1,2, YANG Guangyao1,2, YU Fen1,2* (1 江西农业大学 林学院南昌 3300452 江西省竹子种质资源与利用重点实验室南昌 330045) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31960336);
中文摘要:通过野外观测及光学解剖,观察了斗竹(Oligostachyum spongiosum)开花林相、开花动态、花器官构造、结实情况,以及花后林相更新等生物学特性,采用光学显微技术结合石蜡制片,对斗竹的大、小孢子的发生及雌、雄配子体的发育过程进行研究。结果表明:(1)斗竹为一次性整体开花竹类,花期为4月下旬~5月下旬,花期约持续45 d,成花量大。(2)花序为圆锥状混合花序,每花序由4枚小穗构成;小穗细长,每枚小穗由5~17枚小花组成;小花为颖花,顶部小花不发育,外稃、内稃各1枚;浆片3枚,卵圆形;雄蕊4~6枚(多为6),每枚花药具有4个花粉囊,花药壁发育为基本型,绒毡层为腺质型,小孢子四分体为左右对称型,成熟花粉粒为2 细胞型,球形,表面纹饰颗粒状,具单个萌发孔,花粉发育过程中部分花药出现异常收缩及空腔的败育花粉粒;雌蕊1枚,柱头3叉,羽毛状,子房1室,胚珠倒生,厚珠心,胚囊为蓼型,成熟胚囊结构及发育过程均正常;雌雄同熟,异花授粉,果实为颖果。(3)斗竹花后全林死亡,结实率低,自然条件下结实率为8.1%。研究结果为研究竹子系统分类、开花机制,开展杂交育种及竹林更新复壮工作等提供基础性资料。
中文关键词:斗竹  开花特性  花器官形态
 
Flowering Biological Characteristics of Oligostachyum spongiosum
Abstract:The flowering biological characteristics including flowering forest appearance, floral dynamic, floral organs structure, fruit morphology and regeneration pattern of Oligostachyum spongiosum were observed by the filed investigation and optical microscopy. The process of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis and the development of female and male gametophyte of O. spongiosum were analyzed by paraffin section and light microscope techniques. The results are as follows: (1) O. spongiosum was a massive synchronized flowering bamboo species, and its flowering period was from late April to late May. (2) The inflorescence type of O. spongiosum was paniculate mixed inflorescences. Each inflorescence consisted of 4 spikelets, with 5-17 florets on each spikelet, and the apical florets were not developed. The flower capital was glume flower. Each flower had a lemma and a palea, 3 lodicules, one pistil and 4-6 anthers (usually 6), each of them contained four pollen sacs. The anther wall belonged to the basic type with the typical glandular tapetum, and the cytokinesis was the successive forming the medianly zygomorphic tetrads. Mature pollen grains were 2 cell type, spherical, with granular surface ornamentation, with a single germination hole, abnormal shrinkage and cavity aborted pollen grains in some anthers during pollen development. The pistil had unilocular ovary, anatropous, crassinucellate and double integument ovule and plumate stigma with three branches. The embryo sac was of the polygonum type, and the mature embryo sac was composed of an egg organ, a polar nucleus and antipodal cells. O. spongiosum was monochogamy and cross pollination. The fruit was caryopsis. The regeneration of bamboo forest was mainly sexual reproduction. (3) The whole O. spongiosum forest died after flowering, and the seed setting rate was low, and the seed setting rate was 8.1%. This research provides basic data for the study of bamboo flowering mechanism and regeneration of bamboo forest.
keywords:Oligostachyum spongiosum  flowering characteristics  flower morphology
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