间作植物和茬口对连作党参生长和品质产量的影响
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Author NameAffiliation
DU Maoxiao1, QIU Daiyu1*, REN Fengying1, WANG Sijia2, HU Fangdi3 (1 甘肃农业大学 农学院甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室兰州 7300702 西安利君制药有限公司西安 710077 3 兰州大学 药学院兰州 730000) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31960395);
中文摘要:选择两种茬口(轮作茬、连作茬)和6种植物材料(党参、大蒜、玉米、黄芪、苦参、向日葵),组成党参单作和间作6种种植模式,设置茬口和间作模式两因素田间随机区组试验,通过监测不同生长时期党参的生长指标(蔓长、主根长、主根直径、地下部分鲜干重)、根部产量及品质指标(根部多糖含量、炔苷含量、醇溶性浸出物含量和灰分含量)的变化衡量不同茬口和间作植物对党参连作障碍的缓解效应。结果表明:(1)轮作茬口下党参单作及各间作处理对党参生长、品质和产量的改善效果都较连作茬口下明显,且两茬口下各间作处理的改善效果都较党参单作明显。(2)与向日葵、大蒜和玉米间作处理对两茬口党参的主根长、主根直径、地下部分鲜干重的提升效果比党参单作和其余间作处理(与黄芪、苦参间作)更显著。(3)大蒜和向日葵间作处理能够显著提高两茬口党参根部产量,尤其大蒜表现最优,与其间作的轮作茬和连作茬党参分别较各自对照增产49.92%和22.55%。(4)与大蒜间作能有效提升两茬口党参根部多糖含量、炔苷含量和醇溶性浸出物的含量,党参单作和其余间作处理对两茬口连作党参的品质提升效果不及大蒜间作处理理想。研究发现,从党参长势及根部产量和品质综合分析,两茬口下党参与大蒜间作最有利于党参植株生长,能有效缓解党参连作障碍,并显著提高其药用部位的产量和品质,且轮作茬口下的提高效应更明显。
中文关键词:党参  连作障碍  间作作物  茬口  生长  产量  品质
 
Effects of Intercropping Crops and Stubbles on Growth, Yield and Quality of Codonopsis pilosula
Abstract:Two stubbles (rotation stubble and continuous cropping stubble) and six plant materials (Codonopsis pilosula, Allium stativum, Zea mays, Astragalus mongholicus, Sophora flavescens and Helianthas annuus) were selected to form six planting modes of Codonopsis pilosula monoculture and intercropping, and a field random block test of two factors of the stubble and the intercropping mode was set up. The alleviation effect of different stubbles and intercropping crops on continuous cropping obstacle of C. pilosula was measured by monitoring the changes of growth indexes (vine length, main root length, main root diameter, fresh and dry weight of the underground part), root yield and quality indexes (root polysaccharide content, alkynin content, alcohol soluble extract content and ash content) of the roots. The results showed that: (1) the effects of single cropping and intercropping on the growth, quality and yield of C. pilosula under rotation are more obvious than those ander continuous corpping, and the effects of intercropping under two stubbles are more obvious than those under single cropping. (2) The intercropping treatment with H. annuus, A. stativum and Z. mays had more significant effects on the main root length, the main root diameter and the fresh and dry weight of underground part of C. pilosula than C. pilosula monoculture and other intercropping treatments (intercropping with A. mongholicus and S. flavescens); (3) The intercropping treatment of A. stativum and H. annuus could significantly increase the root yield of C. pilosula during two seasons. Especially, A. stativum performed best. The crop rotation and continuous cropping C. pilosula intercropped with A. stativum increased the yield by 49.92% and 22.55% respectively as compared with the control; (4) Intercropping with A. stativum could effectively increase the polysaccharide content, alkynin content and alcohol soluble extract content in the roots of C. pilosula during two seasons. The effect of C. pilosula monoculture and other intercropping treatments on the quality improvement of C. pilosula during two seasons was not as good as that for A. stativum intercropping. The study found that, based on the comprehensive analysis of the growth status, root yield and quality of C. pilosula, the participation of the party in A. stativum intercropping was the most beneficial for the plant growth of C. pilosula under two crop rotation, which could effectively alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle of C. pilosula and significantly improve the yield and quality of its medicinal parts. Moreover, the enhance effect under crop rotation was more significant than that under continuous cropping.
keywords:Codonopsis pilosula  continuous cropping obstacle  intercropping crops  stubbles  growth  yield  quality
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