翻压山黧豆绿肥与氮肥减施对水稻生长及其养分吸收与产量的影响
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ZHOU Zehong, LIANG Qin, QUAN Ziman, QI Yan, MO Kun, HAN Wenbin* (南充市农业科学院四川南充637000) 
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(绿肥,CARS 22);
中文摘要:为探明种植翻压山黧豆绿肥与减施氮肥下的水稻生产潜力,通过3年田间定位试验,设置冬闲+不施肥(NF)、山黧豆绿肥(GM)、冬闲+常规氮肥(100%N,CK)、山黧豆绿肥+80%常规氮肥(GM+80%N)、山黧豆绿肥+70%常规氮肥(GM+70%N)、山黧豆绿肥+60%常规氮肥(GM+60%N)6个处理,研究不同处理对水稻生长、养分吸收及产量的影响。结果表明:(1)与CK相比,翻压山黧豆绿肥并减施氮肥处理均能够显著提升水稻株高、增加水稻分蘖数、提高水稻干物质积累量,其中以GM+70%N施肥处理提升效果最为明显。(2)GM+70%N施肥处理下,不同生育时期水稻株高、有效分蘖数分别较对照常规施肥(100%N)提升了13.32%~ 15.73%和33.98%~59.47%,水稻干物质积累量提高了23.19%~144.18%,且随着生育时期的推进增加速率依次降低。(3)种植翻压山黧豆绿肥并减施氮肥处理下水稻产量均有所提高,其中GM+70%N和GM+80%N处理显著提高,增产分别达13.84%,7.25%,且GM+70%N处理下水稻植株和籽粒养分吸收更为全面。研究发现,种植翻压山黧豆并适量减施氮肥能有效促进水稻生长和养分的吸收积累,显著提高水稻产量,说明翻压山黧豆绿肥可替代稻田30%~40%的氮肥施入量,并可在避免水稻旺长的同时实现水稻高产,是四川水稻种植较好的耕作措施。
中文关键词:山黧豆  氮肥减施  水稻生长  养分吸收  产量
 
Effects of Turning Green Manure Lathyrus sativus and Reducing Nitrogen Application on Growth, Nutrient Absorption and Yield of Rice
Abstract:In order to explore the potential productivity of rice under the condition of planting green manure Lathyrus sativus and reducing nitrogen application, we set up six treatments: winter fallow + no fertilization (NF), green manure L. sativus + no nitrogen fertilizer (GM), winter fallow + 100% nitrogen fertilizer (CK), green manure L. sativus + 80% nitrogen fertilizer (GM + 80%N), green manure L. sativus + 70% nitrogen fertilizer (GM + 70%N), green manure L. sativus + 60% nitrogen fertilizer (GM + 60%N), and studied the effects of different treatments on growth, nutrient absorption and yield of rice. The results showed that: (1) compared with CK, turning green manure L. sativus and reducing nitrogen application could significantly improve the plant height, tiller number and dry matter accumulation of rice, among which GM + 70%N fertilization treatment had the most obvious effect. (2) Under the GM + 70%N fertilization treatment, the plant height and effective tiller number of rice at different growth stages increased 13.32%-15.73% and 33.98%-59.47%, respectively, compared with the control conventional fertilization (100%N), and the dry matter accumulation increased 23.19%-144.18%, and the increasing rate decreased with the advance of growth stage. (3) The yield of rice was increased under the treatment of turning green manure L. sativus and reducing nitrogen fertilizer, The GM + 70%N and GM + 80%N treatments significantly increased the yield of rice by 13.84% and 7.25%, respectively, and the nutrient absorption of rice plants and grains was more comprehensive under the GM + 70%N treatment. The study found that planting L. sativus and reducing the application of appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer can effectively promote the growth of rice and the absorption and accumulation of nutrients, and significantly improve the yield of rice. It shows that turning green manure L. sativus can replace 30%-40% of the nitrogen fertilizer application in the rice field, and can avoid the prosperity of rice and achieve high yield of paddy rice, which is a better tillage measure for rice planting in Sichuan.
keywords:Lathyrus sativus  reducing nitrogen application  rice growth  nutrient absorption  yield
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