高加索三叶草花蜜腺发育解剖及小花糖分变化研究
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内蒙古农业大学

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国家自然科学基金32160334


Anatomical Study of Nectar Gland Development and Changes in Sugar Content in Caucasian Clover (Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. )
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    摘要:

    【目的】高加索三叶草是优良的蜜源植物,了解其花蜜腺形态特征、组织结构及其发育规律对认识其小花糖分变化规律和合理利用该植物资源具有重要意义。【方法】选择生长良好的高加索三叶草标准株,分别在小花的不同发育时期,即现蕾期、露冠期、初花期、盛花期和谢花期采样。利用石蜡切片技术,观察小花细胞组织结构。采用毛细管法吸取小花花蜜,用生理试剂盒-分光光度法测定初花期、盛花期和谢花期小花的可溶性糖(包含蔗糖、果糖、葡萄糖)和淀粉等糖分营养指标。【结果】结果表明,(1)单个小花的花蜜量为0.394±0.095μL,每平方米花蜜量为4536.93±1319.34μL。(2)蜜腺位于9枚合生雄蕊的花丝内侧基部,属于雄蕊蜜腺。经PAS 染色,蜜腺组织在整个泌蜜过程中淀粉粒有明显的动态变化,属于淀粉型蜜腺。(3)小花的可溶性糖含量在盛花期最高,为7.978mg/g;可溶性糖各组分中果糖占比最大,初花期占比最高,为66%,后逐渐下降;淀粉含量占全糖含量的81%~82%,其中盛花期最高,为35.173mg/g,初花期最低,为24.168 mg/g。【结论】高加索三叶草花蜜腺属于雄蕊蜜腺,蜜腺由分泌表皮细胞和泌蜜细胞构成。原蜜由蜜腺相邻的花托维管束提供,经蜜腺细胞加工成蜜汁,最后由表皮的气孔泌出。高加索三叶草小花的可溶性糖含量在盛花期时最高,其中果糖的占比最大。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum Bieb.) is an excellent nectar source plant, and understanding the morphological characteristics, tissue structure, and development was critical for its reasonable utilization.【Methods】Well-grown standard plants of Caucasian clover were selected and sampled at different developmental periods of the florets, i.e., flower bud visible, petal visible, floret with white petal, floret with pink petal, and floret withered. The paraffin sectioning technology was used to observe the cell and tissue structure of the florets. The starch and soluble sugars including sucrose, fructose, and glucose were determined by capillary aspiration and physiological kit and spectrophotometry at the flower bud visible, petal visible, floret with white petal, floret with pink petal, and floret withered. 【Results】The results showed that: (1) The nectar amount of a individual floret was 0.394±0.095 μL, and the nectar amount per meter square was 4536.93±1319.34 μL. (2) The stamens nectar gland was located at the base of the inner filament of the 9-stamen-combined. The nectar gland tissue had obvious dynamic changes in the starch granules during the whole honey secretion process after PAS staining, which evidenced it was the amyloid nectar gland. (3) The soluble sugar content of floret was the highest at floret with pink petal stage with 7.978 mg/g. Fructose accounted for the largest proportion among the soluble sugar category, peaked at the floret with white petal stage with 66%, decreased gradually after this stage. The starch content accounted for 81%~82% of the total soluble sugar content with a maximum value of 35.173 mg/g at the floret with pink petal stage and the minimum value of 24.168 mg/g at floret with white petal stage. 【Conclusion】The nectar glands of the Caucasus clover belong to the stamens nectar glands, which are composed of secretory epidermal cells and nectar cells. The raw honey is provided by the vascular bundles adjacent to the nectar glands, processed into honey by the nectar gland cells, and finally secreted from the stomata of the epidermis. The soluble sugar content of Caucasus clover florets was the highest in the full flowering stage, and the proportion of fructose was the largest.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-12-29
  • 最后修改日期:2024-04-07
  • 录用日期:2024-04-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-06-21
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