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    2024,44(2):173-181   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20221030
    Abstract:
    The seedlings of P.cornutum(L.) Gaertn. and P.dolabratum Maxim. were used as experimental materials. Observed the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange parameters under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmol·L-1 cinnamic acid and phthalic acid treatment. To explore the effect on photosynthetic characteristics of Pugionium Gaertn. The results showed :(1) Cinnamic acid and phthalic acid promoted seedling growth at low concentrations and inhibited seedling growth at high concentrations. The growth of P.dolabratum Maxim. was inhibited. 10 mmol·L-1 cinnamic acid and phthalic acid treatment had the most significant growth inhibition effect on Pugionium Gaertn. (2) Chl a, Chl b and Chl.a+b decreased in different degrees after treatment with different concentrations of cinnamic acid and phthalic acid. (3) Pn, Tr, Gs at 10 mmol·L-1 were significantly lower than that of the control, while Ci had no significant change. The main reasons for the reduction of photosynthetic rate were non-stomatal factors. (4) Fv/Fm、ФPSII、qP at 10 mmol·L-1 were significantly lower than that of the control and NPQ were significantly higher than control. The study found that the high concentrations of phthalic acid and cinnamic acid inhibited photosynthesis and reduced photosynthetic rate in seedlings, resulting in the impairment of PSII reaction center activity and opening in leaves of these two species, which subsequently affected the growth of Pugionium Gaertn. In addition, the effects of cinnamic acid and phthalic acid on photosynthetic characteristics of Pugionium Gaertn. were different, which might be due to different plant types and stress types.
    2024,44(2):182-193   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20221066
    Abstract:
    【Objective】To understand the effects of compound saline and alkaline stresses with different salt distribution ratios and different concentration gradients on the growth and physiological indexes of resistance of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grape (Vitis vinfera "Cabernet Sauvignon") seedlings. To confirm the range of salinity tolerance and its ability to tolerate salinity.【Methods】One-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon seedlings were used as test materials, and three groups of neutral, weakly alkaline, and strongly alkaline salt solutions were mixed with NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, and Na2CO3 in different ratios, with a concentration gradient of 50, 100, and 150 mmol/L for each group, and no treatment solution was used as control. The solution without treatment was used as the control, and the seedlings were watered regularly during the growth period. Different types and degrees of saline and alkaline stress were simulated through indoor potting experiments, and the growth morphology, physiology and photosynthetic indexes of the seedlings were measured at different periods after the treatment.【Results】1) Stem thickness and leaf area showed a tendency of increasing and then decreasing with the increase of salt stress concentration, while the plant height of "Cabernet Sauvignon" seedlings basically showed a decreasing trend. The plant height of "Cabernet Sauvignon" seedlings was significantly lower in the 150 mmol/L treatment for 10 d and 150 mmol/L treatment for 40 d in the strongly alkaline salt stress group compared with that in the neutral and weakly alkaline groups during the same period of time; 2) SOD activity and MDA content showed an increase and then a decrease with the increase of salt concentration. MDA content showed a trend of increasing and then decreasing, while the POD activity of "Cabernet Sauvignon" seedling leaves showed a trend of slow increase, the POD activity of leaves in the strongly alkaline salt stress group was higher than that of the neutral and weakly alkaline salt stress treatment group of the same concentration in the treatment of 30-50 d. However, with the prolongation of the time treatment, the POD activity of "Cabernet Sauvignon" seedlings was lower than that of the other two treatment groups of the same concentration in the treatment of 60 d, but with the prolongation of the time treatment, it gradually decreased. lower than the other two treatment groups with the same concentration, in which the 150 mmol/L concentration showed more obvious. 3) Intercellular CO2 concentration, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grape seedlings mainly showed a decreasing trend with the increase of salinity concentration, and their intercellular CO2 concentration and net photosynthetic rate were higher in the treatment of 50 mmol/L concentration. Under the same salt concentration treatment, the net photosynthetic rate of leaves was significantly lower than that of neutral and weakly alkaline treatment groups under strong alkaline salt stress at 150 mmol/L for 75 d. The net photosynthetic rate of leaves was significantly lower than that of neutral and weakly alkaline treatment groups under the same salt concentration treatment. 4) Under the same salt concentration, the height and maximum leaf area of seedlings treated with strong alkaline salt stress were significantly lower than those of the neutral and weak alkaline salt treatment groups; the leaf SOD activity was significantly increased by 27% in the 50 mmol/L neutral salt stress treatment compared with that of the CK; and the MDA content of the leaves increased significantly and gradually with the prolongation of time under the 150 mmol/L strong alkaline salt stress.【Conclusion】The growth of "Cabernet Sauvignon" seedlings was limited under saline stress, but its plant height, leaf area, intercellular CO2 concentration, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate showed good growth trends under 50 mmol/L concentration treatment, while its plant height and stem thickness grew the least significantly under strong alkaline salt stress of 150 mmol/L saline solution. The growth of plant height and stem thickness was the least obvious under 150 mmol/L saline solution of strong alkaline salt stress; 50 mmol/L saline treatment was favourable to the growth of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine seedlings in a certain low concentration range.
    2024,44(2):194-204   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230544
    Abstract:
    This paper studied the changes, response mechanism and correlation of functional traits of Leymus chinensis during vegetative growth period under different levels of organic fertilizer, in an attempt to provide reference for the dynamic study of resources, environment and plant functional characters and the restoration of grassland ecosystem. The changing trend, difference, correlation and influence coefficient of functional characters of Leymus chinensis were analyzed by conic equation fitting, single factor multivariate analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analysis and integral (stepwise) regression. The results show that (1) Organic fertilizer could increase the leaf length, leaf area, natural leaf width, unfolded leaf width, specific leaf area, stem length, stem mass, and single plant mass of L. chinensis sativus from increasing at first and then decreasing. At the same time, the content of leaf dry matter and stem dry matter decreased. (2) Organic fertilizer could change the correlation among functional characters of Leymus chinensis, enhance the correlation between leaf area and specific leaf area, stem length and stem mass, and stem length and single plant mass, decrease the correlation between single leaf mass and single plant mass, leaf width and plant height. (3) Organic fertilizer could change the contribution rate of Leymus chinensis phenotypic traits (leave, stem, and plant height) to the single plant mass, and with the increase of fertilization level, the contribution rates of leave, stem and plant height tends to be balanced. The order of phenotypic traits affecting single plant mass of L. chinensis was leaf trait > plant height > stem trait. It was found that short-term application of organic fertilizer had a significant effect on the functional characters of Leymus chinensis, and the effect mainly occurred in the later stage of vegetative growth of Leymus chinensis, especially on the single plant mass. Among them, leaf length, unfolding leaf width, leaf area and plant height have great influence on the single plant mass of Leymus chinensis, while plant height is the most stable factor driving the change of single plant mass of Leymus chinensis. At the same time, the correlation between functional characters of Leymus chinensis was also affected by the level of fertilization. Fertilization not only enhanced the correlation of some functional traits, but also weakened the correlation among other traits, and there was a certain balance as a whole.
    2024,44(2):205-218   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230453
    Abstract:
    Apocynum venetum L. is a precious wild plant germplasm resource in China, which has important medicinal value, ecological value and economic value. Although A. venetum is a plant with strong salt tolerance, the wild population has gradually decreased with the destruction of habitat and the increase of soil salinization. To explore the mechanism of salt tolerance of A. venetum is of great significance for the protection and utilization of wild germplasm resources. In this study, TMT technology was used to conduct quantitative proteomic research on A. venetum under salt stress, and different proteins at different time points were found by Venn analysis. The 11 common differential proteins were mainly concentrated in protein-FAD linkage, negative regulation of transporter activity, negative regulation of ion transmembrane transporter activity, negative regulation of anion transmembrane transport, negative regulation of anion channel activity, and thiazole metabolism. The interaction analysis of differential protein networks showed that ribosomal proteins were the main proteins obtained by the interaction of differential protein networks at different stress times, among which the ribosomal protein L2-2 (TRINITY_DN13265_c0_g1_i1_9) was the core protein in the differential proteins at 12 h and 24 h under stress. The results indicated that ribosomal proteins played an important role in the response of A. venetum to salt stress. In this study, the key proteins of A. venetum in response to salt stress were screened, the molecular resources related to A. venetum salt stress response were expanded, and the theoretical basis was provided for the discovery and utilization of natural resistance germplasm of A. venetum.
    2024,44(2):219-228   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230402
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Flavonols play an important role in the growth and development of plant, and the resistance to stress of plant. In order to explore relevant information of flavonols synthase gene of Menyuan rapeseed in Qinghai province, and provide a reference for further analysis of BpFLS gene function. 【Methods】 The authors utilized the transcriptome to analyze the pollen of Menyuan rapeseed in Qinghai province and Zhengzhou rapeseed in Henan province as materials. At the same time, the differentially expressed flavonol synthase genes were selected for bioinformatics analysis and RACE-PCR cloning. 【Results】 The results showed that: (1) 6 收稿日期:2023-06-20 修改稿收到日期:2023-10-24 基金项目:中央高校科研经费项目(lzujbky-2022-kb05);河南省科技厅自然科学类普通科技攻关项目(212102110050) 作者简介:刘晓宁(1985—),女,博士,副教授,主要从事植物分子生物学研究。E-mail:Xiaoningliu2016@126.com differentially expressed flavonol synthase genes in rape pollen were screened by transcriptome analysis, and BpFLS1-1 gene was the most differentially expressed and up-regulated in the pollen of Menyuan rapeseed. (2) The amino acid sequence encoded by BpFLS1-1 gene has both flavonol synthase activity and flavanone-3-hydroxylase activity. (3) BpFLS1-1 gene might contain a new coding region sequence with a length of 1 170 bp. 【Conclusion】 It is speculated that BpFLS1-1 gene may play an important role in the accumulation of flavonoids in pollen and stress resistance in Menyuan rapeseed.
    2024,44(2):229-235   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230444
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The transcription factor ERFs have various biological functions, and play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and responding to stress. Previous studies have shown that SmERF1 from Salvia miltiorrhiza, participated in plant response to stress. To further elucidate the potential functions of SmERF1, and to further lay a foundation for the study of resistance and seed development of medicinal plants. 【Methods】SmERF1 was hetero-expressed in the model plant tobacco mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in this study. The resistance of transgenic plants was evaluated through determining the plant resistance-related enzyme activity. The levels of hormones such as GA and ABA, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression changes of key enzyme genes involved in hormone biosynthesis were detected with qPCR methods. 【Results】 The results showed that: (1) SmERF1-expressing tobacco plants showed slower growth, less biomass and a decrease in chlorophyll only at the seedling stage with no significant difference in other growth stages. In addition, seeds of tobacco plants with SmERF1 expressed were smaller and lighter than those of wild plants. (2) Under NaCl treatment, the transgenic tobacco lines showed better tolerance to salinity, and the proline content, SOD and POD activities of transgenic lines were higher than those of wild-type plants, while MDA content was lower than that of wild-type plants. (3) we determined the phytohormones related to plant resistance, and the results showed that transgenic tobacco plants had higher ABA levels but lower GA levels as compared to wild type plants. The expression of SmERF1 regulated the expression of key enzyme genes related to plant hormone biosynthesis, such as NtSDR, NtGA20ox, NtACO and NtACS. 【Conclusion】 This study suggests that SmERF1 enhanced tobacco tolerance to salt and regulated seed size through the ABA-dependent pathway.
    2024,44(2):236-245   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230331
    Abstract:
    To explore the differences in the gene expression of roots and leaves of Semiliquidambar cathayensis, and the expression rules of key genes in the biosynthesis of key active components of S. cathayensis. We carried out transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis for the roots and leaves of S. cathayensis. 59378 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were classified into three major classes in GO classification, mainly involving biological process functions (50.59%). 626 DEGs were annotated in 24 categories of the KOG classification. A total of 81 differentially expressed genes involved in phenylpropane biosynthesis, 110 differentially expressed genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, and 211 differentially expressed genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The transcriptomic data of roots and leaves of S. cathayensis were obtained, which laid a foundation for the study of functional identification, secondary metabolic pathway and regulation mechanism of S. cathayensis.
    2024,44(2):246-254   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230363
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of the formation of seed number per pod in Brassica juncea L. and Brassica crops, and lay a foundation for improving the yield and breeding of B. juncea. 【Methods】 In this investigation, 221 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were engineered using the B.juncea L. The study aimed to analyze the additive quantitative trait loci (QTL), additive × additive epistatic effects, and genotype × environment interaction effects on the number of seeds per siliqua in mustard-type rapeseed across five distinct environmental settings. 【Results】 The analysis identified a total of seven additive QTL associated with the number of seeds per siliqua, predominantly localized on chromosomes A02, A03, A05, A08, B02, and B03 of mustard-type rapeseed. The magnitude of additive effects ranged from -11.642 4 to 4.524 6, with the most significant additive effect observed in qSS2-71 (-11.642 4), which also demonstrated the highest heritability at 14.44%. The remaining six additive QTL exhibited less pronounced additive effects and heritabilities. Moreover, the study detected seven pairs of additive × additive QTL interactions influencing the number of seeds per siliqua and their corresponding interactions with the environment. The effects of these epistatic QTL interactions ranged from -4.930 8 to 4.193 6, with the genetic effects of these interactions across different environments approximating zero. Broad-sense heritability of the number of seeds per siliqua trait was 80.98%, while the narrow-sense heritability was 30.98%. 【Conclusion】 Although the number of seeds per siliqua in mustard-type rapeseed is somewhat influenced by environmental factors, the additive effects governing this trait appear to be minimally impacted by the environment, and the epistatic QTL interactions are not substantial.
    2024,44(2):255-269   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230582
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study not only explored the mechanism of flower colour formation in rose but also provided theoretical references and receptor cultivars for flower colour breeding, by the quantitative evaluation and correlation analysis of the physicochemical factors affecting the coloration of rose petals. There was of great significance for exploring the mechanism of flower color formation and germplasm innovation. 【Methods】 8 cultivars of rose with different flower colors were used as experimental materials to measure and compare the physicochemical indexes such as petal color parameter, pH value of petal cell, metal ions content, total anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, and total chlorophyll content, etc., and the anthocyanin components qualitatively and quantitatively were analyzed. 【Results】 Results showed: (1) There were significant differences between the physicochemical factors of different flower colors of roses, among which the factors such as pH value of petal cell, Fe3+, Ca2+, Al3+ content, and the total anthocyanin content and total flavonoids content were closely related to the formation of petal color, but the changes in the content of total flavonoids and total anthocyanin played direct roles, and the factors such as metal ions and pH value of petal cell affected the flower color by changing the structure of the anthocyanidin. (2) The anthocyanin components contained in the petals of the 8 roses were mainly compounds formed by the glycosidation of cyanidin and pelargonidin; and the flavonoids were mainly derivatives such as glycosylated or acylated of quercetin and kaempferol. Among them, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside dominated in the roses and mainly regulated the formation of purplish-red flowers; followed by pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, which mainly regulated the formation of orange and red flowers. Yellow flowers contained very little anthocyanin and were mainly regulated by carotenoids; orange flowers were dually regulated by both anthocyanin and carotenoids; and white flowers contained almost no anthocyanin. Rutin was abundant in all 8 rose cultivars, but there was no significant correlation with petal formation. (3) The cluster analysis of the anthocyanin components in 8 rose petals revealed that the pink-purple cultivar ''Lavender Flower Circus'' was always clustered in a separate group with high rutin content and small anthocyanin content. 【Conclusion】 It was shown that the type and content of anthocyanins directly affected the flower colour of rose, while flavonoids assisted in the formation of anthocyanin, and factors such as pH value of petal cell, Fe3+, Ca2+ and Al3+ content indirectly affected the flower colour. Among the 8 selected cultivars of rose, the pink-purple cultivar ''Lavender Flower Circus'' was the most suitable recipient cultivar for flower colour improvement due to its excellent anthocyanin composition and high pH value of petal cell.
    2024,44(2):270-279   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230485
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 To lay a foundation for the subsequent use of multi-omics methods to explore the metabolic pathways and regulatory mechanisms of important medicinal compounds of Tilia miqueliana Maxim., and provide a theoretical basis for the harvesting of flowers, the chemical composition of T. miqueliana flowers and the content changes of its signature components, flavonoids, in different growing stages were investigated. 【Methods】 The 10-year-old T. miqueliana was used as the test material, this experiment conducted to explore chemical components of flower and flavonoid content differences using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). 【Results】 The results showed that, (1) A total of 46 compounds were identified, including 13 organic acids and their derivatives, 4 coumarins and their derivatives, 1 ester, and 28 flavonoids. (2) The flower opening stage was the cut-off point for significant changes in metabolites. Compared with the bud stage, the metabolites changed more significantly during flowering. (3) Multiple comparison analysis showed that the content of 26 flavonoids differed significantly (P < 0.05) in flowers at different phenological stages. Afzelin, kaempferitrin, quercitrin, hesperidin taxifolin and apigenin 7-O-glucuronide were higher at the flower opening stage. Final bud stage had higher concentrations of proanthocyanidin A2 and three proanthocyanidin trimers. 【Conclusion】 The development status could be an important factor in determining the content of secondary metabolites in the flowers of T. miqueliana. The signature compound at the final bud stage was proanthocyanidin A2, and at full bloom stage is apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, both of them were valuable for harvesting.
    2024,44(2):280-287   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20220968
    Abstract:
    Abstract In order to explore the effects of salt stress on the growth and secondary metabolites of Periploca sepium seedlings, preliminarily understand the salt tolerance range of Periploca sepium and the induction effect of salt stress on secondary metabolites of Periploca sepium. This experiment was conducted on the seedlings of Periploca sepium cultivated for 30 days to determine the changes in biomass, total steroids components, cardiac glycosides (periplocin,periplocymarin and periplogenin), and 4-methoxy salicylaldehyde content of Periploca sepium seedlings treated with different salt concentrations (0 (CK), 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%). The results showed that the Periploca sepium seedlings grew well under low concentrations of salt stress, and the dry and fresh weight of the aboveground and underground parts increased to varying degrees. Their dry to wet ratio also gradually increased with the increase of salt stress level; The content of the main effective components in the plant, such as total steroids and cardiac glycosides, showed a significant upward trend under moderate salt stress concentration, while the content of 4-methoxy salicylaldehyde significantly increased under high concentrations of salt stress. Research has found that Periploca sepium has high salt tolerance, and salt stress within a certain range can significantly increase the content of main pharmacological secondary metabolites in the roots and stems of Periploca sepium seedlings.
    2024,44(2):288-299   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230524
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 This study aims to construct a reliable core germplasm of Pinus yunnanensis for timber-used, enhance the research on its breeding, development, and utilization, and solve the challenges of its wide distribution, high preservation cost, and preservation difficulties, thereby promoting its effective utilization. 【Methods】 The original germplasm was derived from 780 sample plants of 26 natural P. yunnanensis populations, with 18 phenotypic traits serving as the original data, the study used 18 phenotypic traits as the original data and employed two distinct construction strategies (geographical perspective and an enhanced minimum distance stepwise sampling method) to assess the representativeness of the core germplasm constructed using different strategies. 【Results】 The findings indicated that: (1)The genetic diversity index of the germplasm subset, which included 219 samples constructed from a geographical perspective, was significantly lower than that of the four subsets constructed by the enhanced minimum distance stepwise sampling method, however, it was slightly higher than the original germplasm. The germplasm subset and the original germplasm had MD value of 3.921%, VD value of 83.33%, CR value of 82.207%, and VR value of 99.48%. A principal component analysis of the original germplasm quality and the germplasm subset''s 18 traits revealed cumulative contribution rates of 79.376% and 82.163%, respectively, the germplasm subset distribution was relatively concentrated. (2)The enhanced minimum distance stepwise sampling method was utilized to construct four seed proton sets with sampling ratios of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. Among these, the germplasm subset with a 20% sampling ratio proved to be the most effective, with a diversity index significantly higher than the original germplasm. The germplasm subset with 20 % sampling proportion and the original germplasm had MD value of 6.363%, VD value of 83.33%, CR value of 91.099%, and VR value of 124.448%. A principal component analysis was conducted on a germplasm subset with a 20% sampling proportion, revealing a cumulative contribution rate of 83.539%, which exceeded that of the original germplasm. The germplasm subset distribution range encompassed the entire sampling range. 【Conclusion】 The study demonstrates that core collections, constructed using different methods, yield varying degrees of genetic diversity from the original germplasm, while both construction methods could represent the core collection of P. yunnanensis germplasm resources. The germplasm subset derived from the geographical perspective offers more advantages in terms of collection, preservation, and renewal of these resources, this approach could provide a scientific method for the preservation of P. yunnanensis germplasm resources and the breeding of superior germplasm, offering a novel reference method for the construction of other germplasm resources.
    2024,44(2):300-309   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230535
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study of the functional trait variation and environmental drivers of woody oilseed plants in different origins is of great significance for the construction of core breeding populations and the selection of improved seeds. 【Methods】 In this study, three of the largest existing natural forests of Acer truncatum in China, such as Udantara, Pine Mountain and Dai Chintara distributed around the Horqin Sandy Land, the functional traits of leaves and seeds and the soil physicochemical properties were determined, and the methods of ANOVA, correlation analysis, RDA ranking analysis and PLS-SEM model were used to study the degree of variation of functional traits and the correlation between traits and the environment in different origins in Inner Mongolia. To explore the relationship between functional traits and environmental factors of A. truncatum. 【Result】 The results showed that: (1) The differences in each functional trait of the three A. truncatum were obvious, and the coefficient of variation of each trait was as follows: specific leaf area (SLA) >oleic acid content (OA) >seed aspect ratio (ZC∶ZK> carbon-nitrogen ratio (C∶N) > nerve acid content (NA) >seed oil content (OC) >linoleic acid (LOA) >The leaf carbon content (LCC), the inter-source coefficient of variation ranged from 3.81%~19.51%, and the intra-source variation coefficient ranged from 3.60%~14.64%, and the inter-source variation was greater than the intra-source variation. (2) Among the three source areas, the content of oil and linoleic acid was the highest in the Dai Chintara area, and the highest content of nerve acid in the Udantara area. (3) The correlation results showed that there was a significant correlation between the functional traits of A. truncatum and environmental factors. (4) The RDA analysis results showed that environmental factors could explain 24.1% of the functional trait variation of A. truncatum, soil organic matter (SOM) and temperature seasonal coefficient of variation (BIO-4) were the dominant ecological factors, and meteorology and soil jointly determined the variation of A. truncatum functional traits, and meteorological factors played a leading role. (5) The PLS-SEM model showed that the path coefficient between the leaf and seed traits and the oil index of A. truncatum was small, and the synergy effect was not significant, and the average annual temperature was the main influencing factor of the oil-related indexes of A. truncatum fat, and its correlation with oil showed a negative correlation, that is, the lower temperature was conducive to the accumulation of solid oil of A. truncatum seed. 【Conclusion】 This study found that meteorology is the dominant environmental factor driving the variation of functional traits of A. truncatum, and temperature is the key factor determining the solid oil content of A. truncatum seeds, which can provide a theoretical basis for the directional cultivation of A. truncatum for oil.
    2024,44(2):310-318   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230487
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study aims to explore the responsive and adapted routine of leaf functional traits of Atractylodes chinensis to Horqin sandland. 【Methods】 Through a homogeneous gardening experiment, selection of semi-wild Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz. seeds from four seed sources were transplanted to the Chinese (Mongolian) medicinal herb research base in Naiman Banner. The leaves of three-year-old A. chinensis were used as research materials. The purpose of this experiment was to examine how A. chinensis''s leaf structure and functional properties responded to and adapted to the sandy land of Horqin. 【Results】 The findings indicated that the degree of leaf cleavage in the lower portion of the A. chinensis introduced from Zhalute Banner was more evident;additionally, the thickness of the upper and lower epidermal cells of the leaves of the A. chinensis introduced from Weichang County and Zhalute Banner were found to have significantly higher coefficients of variation and plasticity indices than those of the other seed source sites; additionally, their fenestration sea ratios and the tightness of their tissues and structures were greater;The top layer of A. chinensis leaves from Arong Banner and Zhalute Banner sources had a greater number of stomata,whereas the upper layer of A. chinensis leaves from Harqin Banner had a very tiny number of stomata and a low stomatal density.A. chinensis leaves from the Zhalute Banner and Weichang County sources had a robust photosynthetic capacity,and the leaves from the Harqin Banner sources had a notably greater number of stomata in the lower epidermis than the leaves from the other three sources. 【Conclusion】 Comprehensive investigation revealed that A. chinensis from Weichang County and Zhalute Banner were highly adaptable to the Horqin Sandy soil.
    2024,44(2):319-329   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230572
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The purposes of the study was to elucidate the adaptive traits of vegetative organ structure in Orchidaceae to Karst habitats, reveal the survival strategies of different orchid species in response to habitat heterogeneity, and provide theoretical support and reference for the research, protection and development of orchid species. 【Methods】 An investigation was conducted on the leaves, pseudobulbs, and roots of six Orchidaceae species with varying life forms in the Karst region of Beipan River, Guizhou Province. The paraffin section technique was employed to examine the structure and quantify relevant parameters. Descriptive and variance analyses, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were employed for data analysis. 【Results】 The findings revealed that: (1) There were significant differences in structural characteristics among different orchid species. Cymbidium qiubeiense, Cymbidium cyperifolium, Cymbidium lancifolium and Pholidota leveilleana were isofacial leaves with thin leaves. The leaves of Coelogyne flaccida and Bulbophyllum andersonii were heterofacial, with palisade tissue and spongy tissue differentiation, and the leaves were thicker. (2) Pseudobulbs are mainly composed of epidermis, basic tissue and vascular bundle. The cells of basic tissue are small and the density of vascular bundle is large. The basic tissue cells of the pseudobulbs of epiphytic orchid are larger and the water storage structure is more developed. (3) The root coat and cortex of ground orchid are thick, the root coat cells are closely arranged, and the cortical cells are more small layers. The rhizome and cortex of epiphyte orchids are thin, and the cortical cells are large. (4) The thickness of the lower epidermis of leaves was significantly positively correlated with leaf thickness, leaf vascular bundle diameter, leaf flesh thickness, and leaf vein thickness (P < 0.01), while leaf flesh thickness was significantly negatively correlated with lower cuticle thickness and stem vascular bundle diameter (P < 0.05). Stem diameter was significantly positively correlated with epidermis thickness, stem vascular bundle number, and stem cross-sectional area, while stem vascular bundle diameter ratio was significantly negatively correlated with stem diameter, epidermis thickness, stem vascular bundle number, and stem cross-sectional area. The various indicators of roots were significantly positively correlated, and root diameter, root sheath thickness, and cortex thickness were significantly negatively correlated with root vascular bundle diameter ratio. 【Conclusion】 The research revealed that orchids possess a notably resilient convergent adaptability in comparable habitats, as evidenced by their stable root structure. Furthermore, the leaf and pseudobulb structures of orchids mutually facilitate and synchronize with one another, constituting the primary mechanism by which orchids respond to the arid karst environment.
    2024,44(2):330-337   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230322
    Abstract:
    Abstract: In this study, the "Levins" method, variance ratio method (VR), chi-square test, association coefficient (AC) and Ochiai (OI) index were used to analyze eight major plant species in the dominant plant communities in the temperate grasslands of the Kuizu Mountains of Tibet, in order to reveal the effects of non-grazing restriction on the ecological niches and interspecific associations of the herbaceous species in the dominant plant communities in the temperate grasslands of the Kuizu Mountains of Linzhou County, Lhasa River Basin, so as to provide theoretical basis for the protection of the plant diversity of the temperate grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and for the scientific management of the grasslands.The results showed that : (1)non-grazing treatments increased the niche width and niche overlap of grass sedge (Tripogon bromoides), alpine tarragon (Carex parvula), whitegrass (Pennisetum flaccidum), and silky needle fescue (Stipa capillacea).(2) The enclosure community in the study area showed an overall negative association (VR=0.43), and the free-grazing community showed an overall positive association (VR=1.21);According to the Chi square test, the 50% and 42.9% of the 28 species pairs composed of 8 dominant species displayed negative association under the non-grazing and free grazing treatments;The association coefficient showed that 50% and 42.9% of species pairs were negatively linked under the non-grazing and free grazing treatments;respectively. The OI index showed that non-grazing treatments increased the OI values of the main species(Tripogon bromoides, Carex parvula, Pennisetum flaccidum and Stipa capillacea). Based on the interspecific association analysis, non-grazing treatments has strengthened inter-species competition within the dominant plant communities in the temperate grasslands of Kuizu Mountains, and inter-species relationships have become tighter, with the community structure stabilized.
    2024,44(2):338-339   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230527
    Abstract:
    Based on the investigation, collection and study of Pittosporum sp. from Youhao village, Baihe County, we firstly found new geographic distribution records of Pittosporum brevicalyx (Oliv.) Gagnep. was discovered in Shaanxi Province for the first time. Pittosporum sp. are mainly distributed in subtropical areas south of the Qinling Mountains in China, the report expanded the distribution area of this species from northeastward to the Daba Mountains of Shaanxi Province, enriching the distribution records of plants in Qinling-Daba Mountains, and providing basic data for the study of species diversity in the Daba Mountains.
    2024,44(2):340-344   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230515
    Abstract:
    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses unique and valuable plant resources due to its special geographical location, rich vegetation types and complex and variable climatic conditions. The clarification of the plant background information and geographical distribution of the region is of great importance to the study of the flora of the region. In this paper, three new record Chinese species, namely Pedicularis cornigera T.Yamaz., Hymenidium dentatum (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov and Lagotis kunawurensis Rupr., were discovered based on the survey of alpine plant diversity and flora in the Karma Gorge region of Tingri County, Tibet Autonomous Region. This paper reports the above three new record Chinese species, which are certain reference for the study of plant composition in this region. It further provides new information for plant diversity conservation and plant systematic classification on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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    Available online:January 22, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] As an important regulator involved in protein synthesis and gene expression regulation, ribosomal protein is crucial for plant growth and development and stress response. In this study, a ribosomal protein family gene OsRPL36A was cloned from rice, and preliminary research was performed on its biological function, which provided a theoretical basis and research direction for the subsequent study of OsRPL36A gene function. [Methods] Bioinformatics techniques were used to analysis the gene structure, cis-regulatory elements and evolution process of OsRPL36A. Meanwhile, the gene expression level of OsRPL36A in different tissues, under diurnal rhythm, different hormones and abiotic stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). [Results] (1) The gene OsRPL36A encoded 98 amino acids in total with a 297 bp coding region, which belonged to the ribosomal protein L36 supergene family and was named as OsRPL36A. (2) The promoter region of OsRPL36A contained 3 rhythmic expression related elements, 10 light-responsive elements, 14 hormone-responsive elements, and 27 environmental stresses response elements. (3) The expression level of OsRPL36A in leaves was relatively higher than that in other tissues and presented a typical rhythmic expression pattern; the expression level of OsRPL36A was also induced by IAA, high temperature, low temperature and osmotic stress and so on. [Conclusion] OsRPL36A was highly expressed in leaves and presented a typical rhythmic expression pattern. OsRPL36A significantly responded to IAA and might be involved in response to heat shock, low temperature, salt stress, and osmotic stress.
    Available online:January 19, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO) is a key enzyme in the formation of chlorophyll b. To investigate the regulation function of the CAO gene in the leaf color variation of Cymbidium hybrid, and to provide an important basis for studying the formation mechanism of leaf art. 【Methods】 ChCAO gene was cloned from leaves of Cymbidium hybrid by RACE and RT-PCR methods. ChCAO was analyzed for structure characteristics, physicochemical properties, sequence alignment and phylogenetic relationship. The expression characteristics of ChCAO in different tissues and leaves of K21-3 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. 【Results】The results showed that ChCAO coding region was 1 608 bp long, which encoding 535 amino acids. ChCAO was closely related to Cymbidium sinense, which also belonged to genus Cymbidium. The qRT-PCR results reflected the tissue-specific in the expression of ChCAO, with the highest relative expression in leaves and the lowest in roots. Among the different varieties, the expression level of ChCAO in K21 leaves were significantly higher than that of K21-3. The VIGS silencing vector of this gene was constructed and transferred to tobacco, it was found that the viral vector successfully invaded the body of tobacco, the old leaves of tobacco were in a yellow state, and the chlorophyll content in the old leaves and the relative expression of the ChCAO gene were also significantly reduced. It is speculated that the silent expression of ChCAO gene may lead to the reduction of chlorophyll content and the yellowing of leaves, which preliminarily clarifies the function of the ChCAO gene in Cymbidium hybrid.
    Available online:January 19, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】As a kind of thermophilic and chilling-sensitive plants, low temperatures severely affect the growth, development, geographical distribution, and yield of Jatropha curcas L. Previous studies have found that chill-hardening at 12°C can significantly enhance the chilling resistance of J. curcas. The Early Light-Inducible Protein (ELIP) gene in J. curcas is a highly responsive gene to low temperatures. To explore the role of JcELIP in response to low temperatures in J. curcas, to comprehensively understand the structure, regulatory mechanisms, evolutionary relationships of JcELIP, and its interaction with miRNAs, and to provide an important candidate gene resource for subsequent molecular breeding of cold resistance in J. curcas. 【Methods】 This study cloned the JcELIP gene from J. curcas by RT-PCR and conducted a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. The expression changes of the JcELIP gene in the roots, stems, and leaves, as well as during the chill-hardening at 12°C, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The miRNAs interacting with JcELIP were identified, and a co-expression analysis was conducted during the chill-hardening at 12°C. 【Results】 The results showed that the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the JcELIP is 585 bp, encoding 194 amino acids. The size of the protein is 2.04 kD with a theoretical isoelectric point of 9.59. It is a stable hydrophobic alkaline protein, with 3 hydrophobic transmembrane helices. The tertiary structure mainly consists of α-helices and irregular coils and possesses chlorophyll a/b binding sites. Cis-acting element prediction shows that JcELIP has hormone response elements such as abscisic acid. Evolutionary analysis showed that the JcELIP from J. curcas has the highest homology with MeELIP from Manihot esculenta. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that under normal growth conditions, there is no significant difference in the expression of JcELIP in the roots, stems, and leaves of J. curcas; During the chill-hardening at 12°C, the expression of JcELIP in the leaves quickly up-regulated, reaching 64.8 times of the control at 48 h, indicating that JcELIP is involved in the response and adaptation of J. curcas to cold stress. Based on the degradome data of J. curcas, eight miRNAs, including miR390-x, miR6476-x, and novel-m0090-3p, were identified as having regulatory effects on the expression of JcELIP. Co-expression analysis showed that the expression of JcELIP was significantly negatively regulated by miR390-x and novel-m0090-3p during the chill-hardening at 12°C.
    Available online:January 19, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Castanopsis grandicicatricata N. H. Xia & D. H. Vuong, a newly recorded species of Castanopsis (Fagaceae) from China is reported. This species is originally endemic to central and northern Vietnam, but now a scattered population is discovered in the Dawei Mountain area of Pingbian Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan. The study aims to verify the close relatives of the original literature based on morphological speculation, show the systematic status of this species, and increase the richness of Castanopsis plants in China. 【Methods】 The morphology-based speculation on the close relatives mentioned in the original literature was validated through phylogenetic tree reconstructions using nucleus ITS2 of rRNA gene 5.8S, 26S spacer and chloroplast rbcL molecular markers. 【Results】Morphologically, it can be distinguished from other known Castanopsis species by its cupule 4.5-6.0 cm in diameter, spine base connate into tree-like branched bundles, nut oblate, scar covering ca. 2/3 of the nut. 【Conclusion】 The results confirmed that C. mekongensis is indeed one of its close relatives, consistent with the morphological speculation; however, the overall phylogenetic framework of the genus is not clear. This new record holds significant implications for studying the flora of southeast Yunnan and northern Vietnam.
    Available online:January 19, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 As for the aspect of species representativeness and diversity, the article aims to provide a scientific evidence for plant diversity conservation, plant resource utilization in Qinghai area of Kunlun Mountains National Park. 【Methods】 Based on field surveys, historical data and literature, sorted out the list of seed plants in the assessment area, and analyzed the composition, dominant taxa, geographic component and endangered species of seed flora were assessed in the area. 【Results】 The results showed that: (1) There was a total of 46 families, 146 genera and 383 species of seed plants in Qinghai area of the Kunlun Mountain National Park, including three families, three genera and five species of gymnosperms, and 43 families, 143 genera and 379 species of angiosperms; the four families including Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae occupy an important position in the seed flora of the assessed area, and monospecie and oligospecie constitute the main part of the family. (2) The family and genus dominances of seed plants were obvious in this area with eight dominant families and 36 dominant genera, six large genera had more than 10 species including Astragalus, Oxytropis, Artemisia, Saussurea, Poa and Carex (3) The areal-type of the families in this seed flora was mainly cosmopolitan, meanwhile it showed a temperate nature, and the areal-type of genera was mainly temperate distribution with a close connection to the Laurasia. (4) There were four species of national Grade Ⅱ protected wild plants, eight species of Qinghai Province key protected plants, and six species listed in this area. 【Conclusion】 As a whole, the seed flora in Qinghai area of the Kunlun Mountains National Park was remarkably characterized by temperate nature and clear transitional property with low plant species richness, less endemic family, genus and species.
    Available online:January 19, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study aims to definite the karyotypic characteristics and genetic relationships of 12 species of Oxalis from a cytology of view, to provide a reference for exploring the chromosome diversity of Oxalis, identifying the germplasm resources of Oxalis, and selecting the parents for cross-breeding. 【Methods】 The chromosome morphology, number and karyotype of 12 species of Oxalis plants were observed and analyzed by applying the root-tip compression method. 【Results】 The results showed that: (1) Chromosome numbers are reported for the first time for seven species, and of the five reported species, O. fabaefolia and O. pes-caprae have chromosome numbers consistent with previous reports, while the remaining three, differ from previous reports, of which 2n=26 was the first reported chromosome number in the genus Oxalis. A total of seven chromosome bases were found, of which x=13 was reported for the first time; ploidy ranged from 2x to 6x, actual chromosome sizes ranged from 0.27 μm to 2.23 μm, and the location of the attachment point was the metacentric (m) and submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. There were four karyotype types and the karyotype asymmetry coefficients ranged from 56.31% to 65.40%. (2) Among them, O. fabaefolia was the most evolved, and O. compressa was the most primitive. (3) According to the similarity of chromosomal karyotypes, the 12 species of Oxalis can be divided into four groups. 【Conclusion】 It was concluded that the 12 species of Oxalis had extensive karyotypic diversity and that the results of the karyotypic classification were not in complete agreement with the morphological classifications of the previous researchers.
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    2012,32(10):1965-1970, DOI:
    [Abstract] (5041) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.06 M] (36428)
    Abstract:
    RG-8M,early-maturing mutant of late-maturing rape RG-8,was used in the present study.A LEAFY(LFY) homologue gene named BnLFY was cloned from RG-8M with the method of homologous cloning.The full length of BnLFY cDNA was 1 310 bp and contained a complete open reading frame of 1 248 bp,which encoded 415 amino acids residues.As other dicotyledon LFY-like proteins,the deduced amino acid sequence of BnLFY gene had several special regions such as N terminal proline rich region,the central acidic domain,the leucine zipper structure and the lysine and arginine-rich basic region.The result of sequencing indicated that the BnLFY protein shared more than 84% amino acid sequence identity with LFY-like proteins of several cruciferous plants.Transcriptional analysis showed the BnLFY gene expressed constitutively in rape.
    2011,31(11):45-50, DOI:
    [Abstract] (7315) [HTML] (0) [PDF 0.00 Byte] (18025)
    Abstract:
    The morphology and distribution of leaf trichomes of Isodon rubescens were studied using light microscopy. Three morphologically distinct types of trichomes were observed on I. rubescens leaf surfaces: non-glandular, peltate and capitate glandular. The glandular and non-glandular trichomes were present on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Peltate and capitate glandular trichomes comprised one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one head. The head of mature peltate glandular trichomes generally consisted of four secretory cells while that of capitate glandular hairs was composed of two cells. Histochemical results indicate existence of flavnoids in both peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In addition, terpenoids, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes etc., exist in peltate glandular trichomes. Peltate glandular trichomes are probably only site of oridonin accumulation, however, this need direct proof to clarify. High density of peltate trichomes might be considered as an important selection character for the screening of I. rubescens with rich content of oridonin.
    2021,41(2):222-233, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2021.02.0222
    [Abstract] (1574) [HTML] (0) [PDF 14.05 M] (15199)
    Abstract:
    In this study, we studied the relationship between Hetian rose variety (Rosa rugosa ‘Hetian shamomeigui’) and Zizhi rose (R. rugosa ‘Zizhi’), Fenghua rose (R. rugosa ‘Fenghua’) and Damask rose (R. damascena) with molecular data, investigated the phylogenetic relationship of the Hetian rose within genus Rosa, and discussed its hybridization origin. Results showed that: (1) the Hetian rose had unique genetic source. The genetic distance within the Hetian rose (0.017±0.003) was smaller than the distance between varieties (0.029±0.005, 0.024±0.004, and 0.022±0.003, respectively). (2) The phylogenetic tree showed that GAPDH gene clones of the Hetian rose did not mix with the gene clones from other varieties. These indicated that the Hetian rose was genetically diverged from the other three roses, and should be regarded as an unique rose variety. (3) A part of GAPDH clones of the Hetian rose were clustered with four species (R. bracteata, R. laevigata, R. cymosa, and R. banksiae) in Rosa sect. Bracteatae, sect Laevigatae, and sect. Banksiae from China or Southeast Asia, located at basal position of the phylogenetic tree, while other GAPDH clones were clustered with other four European species (R. elliptica, R. sempervirens, R. trachyphylla, and R. abyssinica) in sects. Caninae, Synstylae, and Gallicanae. A total of 19 GAPDH heterozygous loci were detected between the Hetian rose and the above mentioned closely related species, indicating a hybrid origin of Hetian rose. (4) A close relationship between the Hetian rose and 14 European species from sect. Caninae, sect. Synstylae, and Gallicanae was revealed by cpDNA phylogeny and sequence variation analysis. In conclusion, it was proposed that the Hetian rose had a hybrid origin by Chinese and European rose species or varieties. The hybrid parents may be the one or more species in sects. Bracteatae, Laevigatae, Banksiae, Caninae, Synstylae, and Gallicanae. This study provides a foundation for further research on the probable parental species of the Hetian rose.
    2014,34(7):1496-1506, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.07.1496
    [Abstract] (5212) [HTML] (0) [PDF 656.79 K] (13318)
    Abstract:
    Plant anthocyanin is a kind of natural edible pigment,has many advantages:safety,no pollution,outstanding stability;it showed noticeable antioxidant ability,which can prevent cancer and protect the function of the liver,prevention and protection of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and other important nutritional and pharmacological function.Therefore,anthocyanin has important research value and potential applications in food,medicine and health care,horticulture and crop improvement.Here we review recent progresses in biological functions and mechanisms of structural genes and regulator genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis and metabolic pathway,including the anthocyanin biosynthetic,metabolic and accumulative process in plant.Prospective of application prospect and development tendency accumulative processon the anthocyanins genes are elucidated in the end.
    2022,42(3):381-389, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2022.03.0381
    [Abstract] (1063) [HTML] (0) [PDF 11.92 M] (12638)
    Abstract:
    In this study, based on sequence alignment analysis, we cloned the full-length CjMYB1 gene from wild Camellia japonica and performed gene expression analyses in Camellia varieties with different floral colors, which provided a fundamental basis for understanding the function of CjMYB1 underlying the floral color formation during flower development. The results showed that: (1) CjMYB1 gene (GenBank accession: OL347930) was successfully cloned. Its open reading frame length was 879 bp, encoding a 292 amino acids protein with relative molecular weight of 33.17 kD. CjMYB1 is found to be a R2R3-MYB transcription factor and is homologous to the subgroup 7 of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB gene family. (2) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CjMYB1 gene had the highest expression level in the floral buds of wild C. japonica, and had a relatively high expression level in sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, suggesting that CjMYB1 plays an important role of regulating the floral development. The expression level of CjMYB1 gene was higher in red Camellia varieties, but lower in pink, light yellow and white Camellia varieties, suggesting that CjMYB1 gene may play a key role in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. (3) Subcellular localization experiments showed that CjMYB1 protein was located in the nucleus.
    2014,34(9):1916-1926, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.09.1916
    [Abstract] (4909) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.92 M] (7604)
    Abstract:
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of free radicals,reactive molecules and ions that are derived from O2.It is estimated that about 1% of plants-consumed O2 is converted to ROS in various subcellular compartments such as chloroplast,mitochondria,and peroxisome.ROS are well recognized for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial factors,depending on their concentration in plants.At low concentration ROS acts as second messenger in signaling cascades that mediate several responses in plant cells,whereas at high concentration it triggers oxidative damages to biomolecules and even cell death.Equilibrium between ROS production and scavenging is crucial for plants,and monitored by an efficient antioxidative system consisting of both nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidants.This review thoroughly introduced the current proceedings of studies on plant ROS mainly in terms of their types,production sites,roles in signaling and major damages to plant cells,aiming to provide an insight for improving plant resistance to environmental stress through genetic engineering.
    2019,39(3):413-421, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2019.03.0413
    [Abstract] (2475) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.83 M] (7471)
    Abstract:
    Growth regulating factor (GRF) is a plant specific transcription factor family that plays an important regulatory role in plant growth and development. In this study, 11 CsGRF transcription factors were identified in tea plant genome with complete characteristic domains QLQ and WRC. The CsGRF family members contained 3 to 6 exons and were divided into 6 groups based on phylogenetic relationships, which are closer to the grape and kiwi. The transcriptome data analysis of different tissues indicated that the GRF family was highly expressed in the tender shoots. Upstream promoter region analysis revealed a large number of cis acting elements closely related to plant development, hormone and stress response. Fluorescence quantitative detection showed that 10 and 2 CsGRF members were up regulated under low temperature and drought stress, respectively, and CsGRF8 and CsGRF11 responded to both abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the expression levels of 9, 3 and 6 CsGRF genes were significantly different by ABA, MeJA and GA hormone treatments, respectively. This work indicates that the CsGRF family genes are involved in the growth and development and stress response in tea plants, speculating that CsGRF genes may play a role in the stress response relying on the hormone signal transduction pathways.
    2017,37(4):773-781, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.04.0773
    [Abstract] (2756) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.26 M] (7326)
    Abstract:
    Artemisia ordosica is the pioneer plant in the cross areas of wind water erosion in Loess Plateau in China, which plays an important role in the stability of the ecosystems in the regions. We chose the shrub patches as the research objects. Based on the plot investigations in the cross areas of wind water erosion, the static life table was established, survival curves and the function curves derived from the survival analysis were also constructed to evaluate the A. ordosica shrub patch population characteristics. The A. ordosica population dynamics were predicted by a time sequence model. The results showed that: (1) the age structure of the A. ordosica shrub patch was a pyramid, but there were fewer individuals in classes I and Ⅱ than in class Ⅲ; (2) The number dynamics index (V′pi) was close to zero, so the A. ordosica shrub patches were sensitive to environment disturbances; (3) The survival curve of the A. ordosica shrub patch appeared to approach the Deevey Ⅱ type, which indicated that the mortality rate in different size classes was similar; (4) The survival analysis and the time sequence model demonstrated that the lack of young individuals could be the major cause for the decrease of middle size class shrub patches. Therefore, the research suggested that the A. ordosica shrub patch, in Loess Plateau in China, could grow, renew, and adapt well in the cross areas of wind water erosion climate environment, and the population was in stable increasing the situation, which created the water and nutrient condition for the settle and recover of other plants.
    2020,40(9):1539-1548, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2020.09.1539
    [Abstract] (1530) [HTML] (0) [PDF 9.34 M] (6419)
    Abstract:
    To explore the law of leaf color change of Davidia involucrata, we selected pink D. involucrata (pink bracts and leaves) and common D. involucrata (green leaves and white bracts) to compare the anatomical structure and pigment content. The results showed that: (1) two colors of D. involucrata leaves were bifacial leaf, containing a palisade tissue with onelayer neatly arranged long columnar cells and a loosely arranged sponge tissue. The upper epidermal cells of some pink leaves bulged outward, and the total thickness, cuticle, palisade tissue and sponge tissue of the pink were thicker than those of green ones, while the epidermis was thinner. (2) There was no differentiation between palisade tissue and sponge tissue in two D. involucrata bracts. The upper epidermal cells of the pink bracts bulged significantly with the thickening of the cuticle, while the lower epidermis became thinner. (3) The contents of flavonoid and anthocyanin in pink leaves were 1.52 times and 3.67 times that of green leaves. The difference of photosynthetic pigment content between two leaves was not obvious, but the chlorophyll a/b value of pink leaves was significantly lower. The anthocyanin content of pink bracts was significantly higher than that of white bracts, while the flavonoid content of the two was not much different. In conclusion, anthocyanin directly caused D. involucrata leaves and bracts to turn pink, and flavonoid helped the leaves appear pink. The anatomical structure of pink D. involucrata leaves and bracts had changed, which had the higher light energy utilization efficiency and were more suitable for the wet environment.
    2016,36(10):2038-2046, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.10.2038
    [Abstract] (2396) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (6257)
    Abstract:
    Taking Tamarix ramosissima seedlings in the natural flooding area along lower reaches of Tarim River as objects, we analyzed the growth of seedlings and variation of the population under continuous flooding disturbance, and the photosynthetic dynamic responses of seedlings under different flood intensities. Conclusions were as following: (1) the population density of T. ramosissima seedlings under continuous twice strong flooding disturbance, from March 2013 to July 2014, increased firstly, then decreased and increased lastly, but the seedlings’ crown, height and stem diameter decreased firstly, then increased and decreased. (2) The population density of the seedlings increased firstly and then decreased in monitoring area Ⅲ in which the second flooding disturbance was weaker, but its crown, height and stem diameter decreased firstly and then increased. (3) The leaf relative water content of the seedlings decreased firstly with the second flooding disturbance decreasing and then increased. At the same time, the chlorophyll content, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ in the light (ΦPSⅡ), photochemical quenching (qP) of the seedlings decreased, the non photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, but the maximal photochemical efficiencies of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) maintained optimum value. The research means that although the continuous twice strong flooding disturbance could make the population of T. ramosissima seedlings regenerated, it also cause death to a large number of seedlings for flooding. As a result, the population of T. ramosissima seedlings could not form a certain scale. We suggest that we can adopt the strong and weak alternately manner to conduct ecological water conveyance, which can improve the survival rate of seedlings, and make the seedlings to grow stably.
    2014,34(1):196-205, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.01.0196
    [Abstract] (4799) [HTML] (0) [PDF 841.68 K] (5699)
    Abstract:
    Melatonin was firstly found in plants in 1990s.In recent years,the related research on it attracted the attention of many scholars.There were many studies focusing on the content detection method of melatonin in plant,and the physiological function of melatonin in plant was also reported recently.Various methods of melatonin determination were employed for plant samples.The analysis methods included RIA,HPLC,GC,HPLC-MS and GC-MS.Among several methods,HPLC-FD and HPLC-ECD were commonly used to quantify melatonin in plants.The content of melatonin varied in different plant species and organs.Higher content of melatonin was found in seeds and flowers.Nowadays,melatonin was shown to act as a plant growth regulator that directs the differentiation of plant cells,tissues,and organs.It also appears to protect plants against environmental stress from heavy metals,UV radiation,and temperature change.However,the mechanism of its function in plants and the exact synthetic site need to be further investigated.The present paper reviewed some aspects of melatonin in plant:detection,biological synthesis and physiological functions.The potential subjects of melatonin in plant were also proposed.
    2016,36(12):2477-2483, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.12.2477
    [Abstract] (2510) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.32 M] (5170)
    Abstract:
    Using postharvest “Red global” grapes as the material, we investigated the effect of four different treatments of control,250 μL/L ozone, 0.3% coatings and the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% coatings on the storage property of grapes, Through the determination of the soluble solids,titratable acid,respiration intensity, hardness, peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), β l,3 glucanase (GLU), chitinase(CHI), malondialdehyde(MDA), total phenol, statistical weight loss and decay. The results showed that the weight loss rate and rot rate of 250 μL/L ozone, 0.3% coatings and the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% coatings was reduced, the activities of POD,SOD, CHI,GLU was promoted, MDA content was decreased and the drop of the total phenol was delayed compared with control group. In conclusion, the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% sodium alginate coatings had the best result.
    2017,37(1):171-180, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.01.0171
    [Abstract] (2537) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (5141)
    Abstract:
    This paper discusses the ecological stoichiometric characteristics of plants, litter and soils of urban green plants. The results were as follows: (1) the order of average contents of C, N and P in green plants from high to low as follows arbors>shrubs> herbs, and the contents of C, N and P in same ornamental plants of different organs was differ, which showed leaf>stem>root. (2) The nitrogen absorptivity was significantly higher than that of phosphorus absorptivity of urban green plants (P<0.01), and the nitrogen and phosphorus absorptivity showed arbors>shrubs> herbs, which the nitrogen absorptivity of arbors, shrubs and herbs had a significant difference (P<0.05) and the phosphorus absorptivity had no significant difference (P>0.05). (3) The contents of C, N and P in litter showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the content of P had no significant difference. The contents of C, N and P in soil showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the N/P had no significant difference. The contents of C, N and P in soil microbial biomass showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the C/N, C/P and N/P had no significant difference. (4) The contents of C, N and P of plants, litter, soils and soil microbial biomass decreased with the increasing of the temperature of the growing season and increased with the increasing of the annual precipitation, which the absolute value of regression coefficient of P was lower than that of C and N. (5) The contents of C and N in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. The contents of N and P in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. The C/N and N/P in litter had a significant negative correlation. The C/N and N/P in plants and soils had a significant positive correlation. The C/N and N/P in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. (6) Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the plant height, crown, stem diameter, specific leaf area and leaf area index had a large effect on the contents of C, N, P and C/N, C/P and N/P of plant, litter, soil and soil microbial biomass. The plant height, crown, stem diameter had a negative correlation with specific leaf area and leaf area index, and had a negative correlation with the contents of C, N, P of litter, soil and soil microbial biomass, and had a positive correlation with the contents of C, N, P of plants, while the contents of C, N, P and C/N, C/P and N/P had a positive correlation in litter, soil and soil microbial biomass. This study provides a scientific guidance for restoration of the urban green plants in China.
    2017,37(4):705-712, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.04.0705
    [Abstract] (3398) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (4981)
    Abstract:
    Hydroponic culture was conducted to study the effect of different nutritional conditions on the growth of Isoetes sinensis. The paper examined the changing rule of physiological and biochemical characteristics and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the chlorophyll content decreased but other physiological and biochemical indexes including soluble sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline (PRO) content, catalase (CAT) activity gradually increased as N and P concentrations increased in nutrient solution. And the peroxidase (POD) activity increased at the beginning then decreased. Among the photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics, the PSⅡ maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm), PSⅡ effective quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), higher potential maximum relative electron transfer rates (Pm), initial slope of rapid light curve (α) and half starved value of light intensity (Ik) gradually decreased with N and P concentrations increased, while non photochemical quenching (qN) increased. We could conclude that Isoetes sinensis had a better tolerance to the stress of the medium nutrient condition but poor tolerance to the stress under the high nutrient condition with comparatively obvious physiological injury as N and P concentrations increased. The ability of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacity increased, but the photosynthesis capacity decreased with the high nutrient condition, The higher nitrogen and phosphorus could inhibit the physiological activities of Isoetes sinensis, and thus affected its growth. In terms of the possibility that one of the most important factors of endangerment of Isoetes sinensis attributes to the eutrophication water.
    2016,36(4):745-750, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.04.0745
    [Abstract] (3114) [HTML] (0) [PDF 792.27 K] (4905)
    Abstract:
    In order to clarify the effects of different concentrations of manganese(Mn) soaking on photosynthesis, root system, root vigor and biomass of wheat seedling, this paper performed pot experiment at the four manganese gradients of 0 g/L ,0.03 g/L,0.06 g/L and 0.12 g/L,using wheat variety ‘Xinong 979’ as the material. The results showed that:(1)Within the range 0-0.06 g/L of Mn soaking, the photosynthetic pigment, net photosynthetic rate(Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs) and water use efficiency(WUEL) of leaf were enhanced and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) was declined with increasing Mn amount. Among them, the promotion effect of 0.06 g/L of Mn soaking was mostly obvious; when Mn application level was higher than 0.06 g/L, the trend declined in Pn, transpiration rate(Tr), Gs, Ci; (2) Total root length, surface area, root volume, root vigor were the greatest in wheat seedlings under 0.06 g/L treatment, which was showed significant differences to control; (3) The trend of up ground dry weight, root and root shoot ratios in wheat seedlings appeared as single peak curves, which was the greatest under 0.06 g/L treatment. Moreover it showed significant differences to control. In general, appropriate concentration Mn soaking could improve the function of wheat leaf photosynthetic capacity and development of root under seedling stage. However, soaking wheat seeds by higher concentration Mn, would decrease growth of wheat seedling. Therefore in a comprehensive consideration of photosynthetic characteristics,root system and biomass, we propose that the optimal manganese soaking concentration is 0.06 g/L in the local with lack of manganese.
    2016,36(9):1916-1924, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.09.1916
    [Abstract] (3792) [HTML] (0) [PDF 901.90 K] (4824)
    Abstract:
    The family Ranunculaceae has played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. However, agreement is lacking on the systematic relationships of many genera within Ranunculaceae. In recent twenties years, molecular phylogenetic studies discovered that previous classifications system based on morphological characteristics were quite difference with the molecular phylogeny. The vast majority of the subfamily defined by morphological traits was not supported by molecular systematic. Besides, several genera determined by morphology, such as, Cimicifuga, Souliea, Hepatica, Pulsatilla, Batrachium etc., were detected to be synonymies according to molecular analysis. At the mean time, molecular systematics studies also established genera in the family, such as, Gymnaconitum etc. Through molecular systematics study, a total of ten genera were reduced, and two genera were established in China. However, the relationships between many groups within Ranunculaceae are still in question. The phylogenetic framework of subfamily. Ranunculoideae and tribe Delphinieae still needs to further study. In the present paper, recent advances in molecular phylogenetics of Ranunculaceae are summarized and some problematical issues within the family are discussed.
    2015,35(3):614-621, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2015.03.0614
    [Abstract] (3952) [HTML] (0) [PDF 703.12 K] (4458)
    Abstract:
    The pollen viability and the daily changes of 2 wild tobacco resources(Nicotiana alata,N.gossei) and 1 cultivar(K326) were measured by TTC method.The receptivity of stigma was measured by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method,and the stigma receptivity changes of different flowering days were measured by pollination test.The reproductive characteristics of 3 tobacco resources were analyzed by estimating pollen ovule ratio(P/O),hybrid breeding index (OCI) and pollination test.The results showed that:(1)The pollen viability of N.gossei(74.9%) was significantly higher than that of K326(52.2%) and N.alata(45.3%),but there was no significant difference between K326 and N.alata.The daily changes of pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources showed bimodal curves,the peaks at 13:00 and 15:00,respectively.Both the lowest daily pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources and the highest daily temperature appeared at 14:00.(2)The stigma receptivity of K326 was significantly higher than that of N.alata’s and N.gossei’s,but there was no significant difference between the 2 wild resources.The optimal pollination periods of different resources were different.Stigma receptivity of N.gossei might maintain highly from before 1 day to after 4 days of flowering day.The optimal pollination period of N.alata was 2-3 days after flowering day,while the optimal pollination period of K326 was from before 1 day to after 1day of flowering day.(3)The reproductive type of K326 was self-compatible,with some outcrossing phenomena.N.alata and N.gossei were mainly outcrossing.But N.gossei was self-compatible,and the self-compatibility of N.alata was poor.The results indicated that the stigma receptivity of wild resources significantly influenced their fecundity.Low seed-set rate of N.alata was mainly due to self-incompatibility,otherwise the lack of effective pollination was the main reason causing low seed-set rate of N.gossei.
    2014,34(9):1927-1936, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.09.1927
    [Abstract] (3853) [HTML] (0) [PDF 542.14 K] (4125)
    Abstract:
    As a second messenger,Ca2+ is involved in signal transduction pathways related to various responses to abiotic and biotic stress in plant.The specific calcium signal in plant cell is actived by different stress via stimulating calcium channel on the plant plasma membrane,then transformed to Ca2+ sensing proteins,such as calmodulin(CaM),Ca2+-dependent protein kinases(CDPK) and calcineurin B-like protein,etc.,which induced a series of physiological and biochemical processes of plant cell to the stress.Drought stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses in the earth.Ca2+ signal plays a pivotal role on response to drought stress,by regulating stomatal movement,water channel protein(aquaporin,AQP) and antioxidase activity to reduce water loss and drought damage,increasing water use efficiency.Furthermore,Ca2+ has some ecological functions.In this paper,we also summarize the new progress Ca2+ signal and its regulation for response to drought stress,and propose simple prospect in the future.
    2021,41(1):168-180, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2021.01.0168
    [Abstract] (1525) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.99 M] (4034)
    Abstract:
    The research of plant signal peptides mainly focuses on small molecular peptides. As a key component of intercellular communication, small molecular peptides are mainly involved in signal interference, response pathways, display antimicrobial activity, and interaction with receptor kinases on the surface of cell membranes in the form of ligands, which are enable signal communication between cells. Small peptide molecules are important intercellular signal sensing molecules that are critically involved in regulating growth and development processes and stress responses in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in different organ tissues and developmental stages of plants to coordinate and integrate cellular functions. This review indicates a comprehensive overview of the discovery, structural features, classification system, and functional progress of plant small molecule peptides, and focuses on recent years at home and abroad on the CLE (clavata3/ESR) family of post translational small peptides and Ralf (rapid alkalinization factor) family of cysteine rich peptides, provides basic information for in depth studies of plant small molecule peptides and reference for future research directions.
    2016,36(5):1031-1038, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.05.1031
    [Abstract] (2542) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.51 M] (4017)
    Abstract:
    ERECTA gene encodes a leucine rich repeat receptor like Ser/Thr kinase. It participates in regulating morphogenesis of plant organs and plays an important role in the change of plant type and resistance to adversity. In the present study, pET21a CsERECTA, a prokaryotic expression vector with maltose binding protein tags was constructed and successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3).Expression conditions were optimized in the optimal temperature ,induction duration, and IPTG concentration.The fusion protein MBP CsERECTA was purified by nickel chelating chromatography and enzyme digestion was conducted by rTEV protease. The CsERECTA protein was obtained and it was used to prepare polyclonal antibody.The results showed that CsERECTA was expressed in the form of soluble and inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21(DE3), and a large number of proteins were soluble at low temperature. The optimal temperature,induction duration and IPTG concentration were 23 ℃,6 h and 0.5 mmol·L-1, respectively.Western blot showed that the polyclonal antibody of CsERECTA has good specificity, because endogenous CsERECTA was detected. The successfully prepared polyclonal antibody can be used for further investigation, which establish the foundation for investigating the function of the CsERECTA gene in cucumber.

    Governed by:Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China

    Sponsored by:Northwest A&F University; Botanical Society of Shaanxi Province

  • Editor-in-Chief:Professor ZHAO Zhong
  • Editorial-Director:WEI Qingxia
  • Publisher:Editorial Department of Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica

  • Address:Building #0, South Campus of Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China
  • Post code:712100
  • Service Tel:(029)87082936

  • ISSN:1000-4025
  • CN:61-1091/Q
  • Post code:52-73

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