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    2024,44(5):681-690   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230692
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The high concentration of salt in soil seriously affected the yield and quality of Cucurbita pepo L, and exogenous silicon could effectively alleviate the damage of salt stress to crops.To explore the protective mechanism of exogenous silicon on water metabolism and photosynthesis of Cucurbita pepo L. seedlings under salt stress, and to provide theoretical reference for salt resistance of C. pepo. [Methods] Taking“Hanlu 7042” C. pepo variety as test material, through hydroponic experiment, four treatments were set: Control , silicon treatment(0.3 mmol/L Na2SiO3·9H2O), salt stress(150 mmol/L NaCl), salt stress + silicon treatment(0.3 mmol/L Na2SiO3·9H2O + 150 mmol/L NaCl). After 10 days of treatment, the root morphology, root activity, leaves water content, leaves water potential, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and expression of plasma membrane aquaporin gene were determined. [Results]Salt stress significantly inhibited the growth of C. pepo seedling roots, decreased root activity, leaf water content, leaf water potential and transpiration, and salt stress also destroyed the photosynthetic system of the plant, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and PSII photochemical efficiency were significantly decreased. Exogenous silicon significantly improved the root morphology and activity of C. pepo seedlings under salt stress by promoting the genes PIP1;2, PIP1;3, PIP1;5, PIP1;7, PIP2;1, PIP2;4, PIP2;6, PIP2;8. The expression of PIP2;9 and PIP2;12 improved the water status in plant, which showed that leaf water content and leaf water potential were increased, and transpiration was enhanced, the exogenous silicon also increased the stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, PSII maximum photochemical efficiency, PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quenching coefficient, the photosynthesis of seedlings under salt stress was enhanced by decreasing intercellular carbon dioxide concentration and non-photochemical quenching coefficient. [Conclusion] The addition of 0.3 mmol/L silicon could improve the water metabolism and photosynthesis of C. pepo seedlings under salt stress, and thus enhance the ability of C. pepo seedlings to resist salt stress.
    2024,44(5):691-705   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20220635
    Abstract:
    【Objective】Investigating the dynamic physiological adaptability and drought resistance of 12 plant species to arid stress, this study aims to select suitable shrub and tree species for vegetation restoration in the piedmont belt of the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains.In this study, by discussing the dynamic physiological adaptability and drought resistance of 12 shrubs and screened out the shrubs suitable for vegetation restoration in the Northern Piedmont of Tianshan Mountains. 【Methods】In this study, 12 plant species planted in the piedmont belt of the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, including Rosa acicularis, Caragana korshinskii, Xanthoceras sorbifolium, Prunus sibirica, Tamarix chinensis, Haloxylon ammodendron, Hippophae rhamnoides, Hippophae rhamnoides (‘Xinji 1#’ to ‘Xinji 5#’), were selected as the subjects. The study observed the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture following irrigation and analyzed the impact of drought stress and rewatering treatment on plant photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, anti-stress physiological and biochemical indicators, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The drought resistance of these twelve plant species was evaluated using principal component analysis.【Results】(I) Both before and after the onset of drought stress, the surface layer (0-20 cm) of the soil at each plant''s location exhibited the most rapid moisture loss. This trend diminished with depth, with the middle layer (20-40 cm) experiencing a lesser rate of loss and the bottom layer (40-60 cm) showing the slowest rate of water depletion. To cope with the drought conditions, different plant species adapted by altering their growth strategies, as evidenced by changes in their growth patterns. (II) As drought stress intensified, key photosynthetic physiological parameters in plant leaves, such as the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, potential activity of PSII, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, electron transport rate, and chlorophyll content, all declined. In contrast, physiological indicators of stress resistance, including the activity of superoxide dismutase, proline content, malondialdehyde content, and non-photochemical quenching coefficient, increased. Following rewatering, a recovery was observed in these parameters, yet they did not fully return to their initial levels. (III) The results of principal component analysis highlighted that factors like net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, electron transport efficiency, and malondialdehyde content were major contributors. Species such as Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix chinensis, Rosa acicularis, and Caragana korshinskii demonstrated significant drought resilience. Hippophae rhamnoides, H. rhamnoides ‘Xinji 5’, H. rhamnoides ‘Xinji 1’ and Prunus sibirica showed moderate levels of drought resistance, while H. rhamnoides ‘Xinji 4’, H. rhamnoides ‘Xinji 3’, Xanthoceras sorbifolium and H. rhamnoides ‘Xinji 2’ exhibited relatively lower drought tolerance.【Conclusion】Net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, electron transfer efficiency, and malondialdehyde content are crucial indicators for evaluating the adaptability of various plant species to drought stress. In the context of ecological restoration efforts in the piedmont belt of the Tianshan Mountains'' northern slope in Xinjiang, prioritizing the cultivation of Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix chinensis, Rosa acicularis, and Caragana korshinskii is recommended.
    2024,44(5):706-715   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20220839
    Abstract:
    In order to study the characteristics of cadmium absorption of wheat and oat by reducing chemical fertilizer and applying different organic fertilizers. On the basis of 20% reduction of chemical fertilizer application, four fertilization treatments were set up to study the effects of different organic fertilizers on the accumulation, distribution and transport of cadmium in crops: manure 30000 kg/hm2 (AM), bio organic fertilizer 600 kg/hm2 (BF), manure 30000 kg/hm2 + bio organic fertilizer 600 kg/hm2 (am+bf) and normal fertilizer application (CK). The results showed that the combined application of organic fertilizer could reduce the cadmium absorption of crop organs.Compared with CK, the cadmium content in wheat grain decreased by 15.79%-36.84%, the grain enrichment coefficient decreased by 8.02%-24.55%, and the transport coefficient from root, stem, leaf and ear to grain decreased by 5.79%-56.28%; Compared with CK, the content of cadmium in oat grains decreased by 11.76%-47.06%%; The grain enrichment coefficients of BF and am+bf treatments decreased by 38.46% and 30.77% respectively; The transport coefficient from root, stem, leaf and ear to grain decreased by 16.2%-32.77%; After grain filling, the content of cadmium in oat grains increased and the content of cadmium in stems decreased. The biomass of the two crops increased by 6.78%-11.00% under the combined application of organic fertilizer; After heading, the transfer amount, transfer rate and contribution rate of cadmium from organs to grains were highest in stems. The above results showed that the combined application of organic fertilizer could reduce the content, enrichment coefficient and transport coefficient of cadmium in crop grains, improve the safety and quality of agricultural products, and the effect of reducing cadmium in oat grains was better than that of wheat. It was found that the transport of cadmium from stems to grains after heading was the main source of cadmium accumulation in grains.
    2024,44(5):716-728   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230724
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Monogalactose diglyceride synthase (MGD) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of monogalactose diglyceride (MGDG) and plays an important role in plant response to low phosphorus tolerance. To systematically understand the role and function of OsMGD2 and OsMGD3 genes in response to phosphorus(P) deficiency. 【Methods】 A pot experiment was conducted to analysis physiological responses and lipid composition changes of wild-type (SR1) and transgenic tobacco under normal and P deficiency condition.【Results】 The was no difference in P content between transgenic and wild-type tobacco under normal and P deficiency conditions. However, the biomass, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic electronic transfer of transgenic tobacco were significantly higher than wild type. The phospholipid (PL) content, digalactose diglyceride (DGDG) content, DGDG/MGDG ratio and galactosyllipid (GL)/PL ratio of transgenic tobacco were significantly higher than those of wild type tobacco under low phosphorus deficiency, and the lipid content and ratio of OsMGD3 transgenic tobacco were higher than OsMGD2 transgenic tobacco.【Conclusion】 Regulation of OsMGD2/3 gene expression in rice can improve the membrane lipid remodeling ability of plants under phosphorus deficiency, maintain the higher photosynthetic and growth capacity of plants under phosphorus deficiency, and increase the plant tolerance to low phosphorus stress.
    2024,44(5):729-738   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230671
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) plays an important role in ABA signaling transduction and abiotic stress responses. The aims were to further elucidate the regulatory mechanism of SnRK2 gene family members under drought stress in Saccharum spontaneum. 【Methods】 This study identified SnRK2 genes in S. spontaneum based on whole genome data, and conducted bioinformatics analysis and expression analysis under drought stress on them. 【Results】 The results showed that 11 SnRK2 gene family members were identified and named as SsSnRK2.1 to SsSnRK2.11, which were unevenly distributed on 8 chromosomes. The results of physicochemical property analysis showed that the encoded amino acid residues of SsSnRK2s ranged from 227 to 580, the molecular weight ranged from 25 683.53 D to 64 695.8 D, the isoelectric point ranged from 4.62 to 8.94, and all were hydrophilic proteins. The 11 SsSnRK2s could be divided into 3 subgroups, and the conserved motif sequences within the same subgroup were quite similar, with the number of exons mainly ranging from 7 to 9. Cis-acting element analysis showed that the promoters of SsSnRK2 gene family members contained various hormone-related and abiotic stress response cis-acting elements. The analysis of transcriptome data from different tissues showed that SsSnRK2s were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The qRT-PCR results showed that all SsSnRK2 genes were able to respond to drought stress to varying degrees. 【Conclusion】 The study suggests that the SsSnRK2 genes may play a significant role in the response process to drought stress in S. spontaneum L.
    2024,44(5):739-750   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230629
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 VQ protein is a kind of plant-specific protein with the conserved VQ motifs (FxxhVQxhTG), which plays an important role in plant growth and development as well as in response to abiotic stresses. To date, the roles of the lychee (Litchi chinensis) VQ gene family has not been systematically studied. We systematically identified the LcVQ gene family members, a sequence characteristic, expression patterns in different tissues of lychee and their responses to abiotic stresses. 【Methods】 The gene sequences of LcVQ genes were obtained from L. chinensis genome using bioinformatics methods, and their physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, gene structure, and conserved motifs were analyzed; a phylogenetic tree were constructed using MEGA 6.0 to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the VQ proteins in lychee, Arabidopsis and rice; the responses to various abiotic stresses were verified by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). 【Results】 A total of 18 LcVQ genes were identified from the L. chinensis genome, named as LcVQ1-LcVQ18, which were clustered into 9 subgroups. They were widely distributed on 11 of 15 chromosomes of lychee. The amino acid number of LcVQ proteins ranged from 111 aa to 427 aa, and their protein molecular weights from 12.48 kD to 45.49 kD. The predicted results of subcellular localization showed that except for LcVQ15 and LcVQ17 were localized at Cytoplasm, all other LcVQ proteins were localized at Nucleus. The prediction analysis results of cis-acting elements indicate that the LcVQ promoters contained a large number of growth and development, plant hormone and stress-responsiveness related response elements. The analysis results of transcriptome data suggested that LcVQ genes expression varied at different tissues, which can be divided into universal expression and specific expression. Under the treatment of low temperature, high temperature, drought and salt stress, we found that 4, 3, 3 and 4 LcVQ genes were significantly up-regulated at 3 hours of treatment, indicating that these genes can quickly respond to the abiotic stresses. 【Conclusion】 There are 18 VQ family members in the L. chinensis genome, with typical VQ binding domains, which can differentially participate in different stress responses, and laying a foundation for studying its stress-resistant mechanism.
    2024,44(5):751-759   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230591
    Abstract:
    [Objective] Auxin is one of the most important phytohormone and regulates many biological processes in plant. Small auxin up RNAs,which belong to a kind of auxin early response gene, plays an key role in plant cell elongation. However, the function of SAURs on cotton fiber development is not clear. [Methods] In this study, a new gene encoding SAUR protein was cloned from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and named GhSAURX. Then, expression pattern, subcellular localization, phenotype identification of transgenic Arabidopsis, and expression analysis of auxin-related genes were performed to explore Its function. [Results] Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GhSAURX have close relationship with SAUR76, SAUR77 and SAUR78 in Arabidopsis, and belonged to SAUR76 subfamily. qPCR showed that the highest expression level of GhSAURX is observed in fiber of 15, 18 and 21 DPA, when fiber elongated fast. Meanwhile, GhSAURX showed much higher expression level in variety with long fiber than that in variety with short fiber. Analysis of subcellular localization indicated that GhSAURX distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of GhSAURX promoted the elongation of primary root and hypocotyl under dark condition in Arabidopsis, and elevated the expression auxin related genes, such as YUCCA6, ARF7 and PIN4. [Conclusion] Our results indicated that GhSAURX functioned in the cell elongation mediated by auxin.
    2024,44(5):760-771   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230840
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The study aims to analyze the metabolomic differences of potato roots to NaHCO3 stress, reveal the metabolic molecular mechanism of different potato varieties in response to NaHCO3 stress, and provide theoretical basis for optimizing potato breeding, cultivation techniques and production applications. [Methods] The root system of potato ‘V7’ and ‘KANG Nibeike’ seedlings was selected as the research object, and NaHCO3 solution was used to simulate alkali stress with different concentration gradients (CK, 10 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L, 30 mmol/L, 40 mmol/L, 50 mmol/L). The root metabolites of two potato varieties were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (LC-MS) and multidimensional statistics combined with non-targeted metabolomics detection. [Results] (1) Under NaHCO3 stress, 160 metabolites were up-regulated and 91 metabolites were down-regulated in ‘V7’ roots, 125 metabolites were up-regulated and 52 metabolites were down-regulated in ‘KANG Nibeike’ roots. (2) KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that 10 differential metabolic pathways were selected for each of the two varieties, among which 4 differential metabolic pathways, namely, biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, synthesis of histidine and purine-derived alkaloids, and pyrimidine metabolism, were the key metabolic pathways in response to alkali stress in potato roots. (3) Differential metabolites such as carbohydrates, amides, amines, oxy-containing organic compounds, alkaloids, phenolic acids, somatogenin, etc. are involved in the complex regulatory network of potato response to NaHCO3 stress. [Conclusion] The key metabolites and metabolic pathways of potato root in response to NaHCO3 stress were screened out. There were differences in the root metabolomics of alkaline tolerant cultivar ‘V7’ and alkali sensitive cultivar ‘KANG Nibeike’. At the same time, there were differences between the root metabolism of the same variety and CK under different stress levels. The accumulation of amino acids and their derivatives, organic acids and allantoin is an important characteristic of ‘V7’ root metabolism, which is more active and alkaline resistant than ‘KANG Nibeike’.
    2024,44(5):772-781   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230697
    Abstract:
    [Objective] In order to better understand the population variation of cork oak leaf anatomical structure and its relationship with environmental factors. [Methods] The leaves of 28 naturally distributed Quercus variabilis populations in China were studied by conventional paraffin sections combined with optical microscopy. Nested analysis of variance and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between population variation of leaf anatomical structure and environmental factors. [Results] (1) there were significant differences in leaf anatomic traits among 28 populations, the average coefficient of variation was 7.90% ~ 14.70%, and the variation range of the same leaf anatomic traits was different among different populations. (2) There were significant differences among the 9 anatomic traits within and among populations, and the average phenotypic differentiation coefficient was 37.44%. The variation of anatomic traits mainly came from within populations. (3) Leaf thickness, epidermis thickness, palisade tissue thickness and spongy tissue thickness were significantly positively correlated with latitude, and average annual temperature and annual precipitation had significant effects on the epidermis thickness and palisade tissue thickness. [Conclusion] The results show that Q. variabilis has rich genetic, in order to adapt to low temperature and drought, the leaves of Q. variabilis showed a trend of thickening. The results can provide theoretical basis for understanding environmental adaptation strategies of Q. variabilis.
    2024,44(5):782-791   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230635
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 It is of great significance to explore the distribution of NSC and its components in different organs with seasonal changes for revealing the mechanism of carbon distribution in different age forests. 【Methods】 The contents of NSC and its components in different organs of young and middle-aged Pinus armandii were determined by periodic sampling to explore the seasonal changes of P. armandii during the year. 【Results】 The results showed that, (1) the distribution pattern of NSC and its components in different age forests was basically the same among all organs, with the starch content in roots > leaves > branches > stems. The starch content in stems was significantly lower than that in other organs, while the content of soluble sugar and NSC in leaves, roots and branches was not significantly different. The ratio of sugar to starch in stem was significantly lower than that in other organs. (2) During the whole growing season, NSC and its components were mainly affected by seasons, followed by the interaction between seasons and organs, and the influence of forest age was the least. (3) The correlation between NSC and its components in different forest organs was basically the same, except the negative correlation between young forest ratio of sugar to starch and starch, NSC and middle-aged forest ratio of sugar to starch and starch, the other indexes were positively correlated. 【Conclusion】 In summary, NSC and its component contents in various organs of P. armandii had obvious seasonal fluctuations. When the environment changes, the carbon supply and demand of different organs changed synergistically, which was conducive to the growth of P. armandii, and enhanced its resistance and adaptability to cope with extreme environment.
    2024,44(5):792-801   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230606
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. was the main precious broad-leaved timber species in the Xiaolongshan forest area. The adaptability of the changes with the leaf traits to microhabitat was explored, providing a theoretical basis for in-depth research on the main environmental factors affecting this species.【Methods】 Taking Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. in the Heihe Nature Reserve area of Xiaolongshan was the research object. Using the gradient sampling method, 4 altitude gradients were set up. The significant difference and correlation of 14 leaf functional traits and leaf nutrient content were analyzed. 【Results】As the altitude was increased, the leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, and chlorophyll content of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. were gradually increased, and reached maximum at altitude of 1 741 m and 1 926 m, respectively. The specific leaf area, maximum net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and leaf C and N content gradually decreased, reaching their maximum at an altitude of 1 268 m except for leaf C content. The leaf area, stomatal conductance, and leaf C∶N showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with altitude increasing. The intercellular CO2 concentration, C∶P, and N∶P showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. With every 200m increase of altitude, the functional traits and C∶N average increase were 1.13%-30.72%. Specific leaf area, maximum net photosynthetic rate and C and N content decrease were 2.22%-15.75%, respectively. The N∶P values of leaves at various altitudes were 4.36-6.89, far below 14, and showed a highly significant positive correlation with the maximum net photosynthetic rate. The maximum net photosynthetic rate was highly significantly positively correlated with specific leaf area, C and N content, C∶P and N∶P. There was a highly significant negative correlation with leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, and chlorophyll content. There was a highly significant negative correlation between specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content, and a highly significant positive correlation with C and N content and C∶P. 【Conclusion】 The altitude significantly affected the functional traits and leaf element content of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. leaves. The protected area below 1700m was conducive to the leaf development and the nutrient accumulation of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., which was the most suitable distribution area for its growth.
    2024,44(5):802-812   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230599
    Abstract:
    【Objective】To gain a deeper understanding of the flowering and fruiting characteristics of Leucospermum cordifolium, explore the reasons for its low fruiting rate, and promote its seed production, hybrid breeding, flowering period regulation, and new variety cultivation.【Methods】This article uses Leucospermum cordifolium as the main material to study its flowering phenology, floral characteristics, pollen vitality, stigma acceptability, hybridization index, and pollination and fruiting characteristics.【Results】1) The flowering period of Leucospermum cordifolium is generally in late winter, early spring to summer; 2) The most suitable in vitro germination medium for measuring its pollen vitality is 30g/L sucrose+150mg/L boric acid+50mg/L calcium chloride, with a pollen vitality of 67.47%; 3) The receptivity of the stigma gradually increases from day 1 to day 7 of flowering, and is strongest from day 5 to day 7; The estimation results of hybridization index indicate that Leucospermum cordifolium is partially self compatible, cross compatible, and requires pollination; 4) Field observations have shown that its fruiting rate is relatively low in its natural state, but it can spontaneously complete pollination and there is no phenomenon of apomixis; 5) The artificial pollination experiment found that Leucospermum cordifolium had the highest seed setting rate during cross pollination, at 17.14%, while self pollination had the lowest seed setting rate, at 4.94%.【Conclusion】One of the reasons for the low natural fruiting rate of Leucospermum cordifolium is due to the different ripening of its stamens, while the callus in the pistil style and ovary, as well as the abnormal enlargement of the pollen tube tip after pollen germination, are important reasons for its low fruiting rate.
    2024,44(5):813-823   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230650
    Abstract:
    [Objective] In order to enrich the reproductive biology theory of Polygonatum Mill.?and provide the basis for further breeding of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp., the morphological structure characteristics, megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis, and the development process of male and female gametophytes of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. were studied. [Method] The flower buds of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. at different developmental stages were used as experimental materials. The morphological and structural characteristics of the flowers of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. were observed by microscopic observation, and the single flower pistil and stamen of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp.were observed by paraffin sectioning technique.[Results] The perianth of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. is white or yellowish green, and the perianth tube is slightly constricted near the throat. It has 6 stamens, the lower end of filaments and anthers are united, and the anther is longitudinally split. The pistil ovary is superior, each ovary consists of 3 carpels, and the style is equal to the ovary. The anther wall of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. was composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum with one layer each. The mature tapetum had multiple nuclei, and the development type of tapetum was secretory. The meiotic division of microspore mother cells was continuous, there were obvious diads, tetrads were arranged symmetrically, and mature pollen grains were 2-cell type. There is a phenomenon of asynchronous microspore development between different anthers of the same flower and different pollen sacs of the same anther. Ovule in pistil ovary with double integument, thick nucellum. The tetrad formed by meiospore mother cell meiosis was linear, the three megaspore end degenerated and disappeared, and the functional megaspore end developed into 7-cell and 8-nucleus embryo sac, the embryo sac development type was polygonum. The phenomenon of double embryo sac ovule in Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. was observed. The calcium oxalate crystals were observed in the anther wall of the stamen and the ovary wall of the pistil. [Conclusion] The stamens and pistils of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. have more primitive development characteristics. Although there are abnormal phenomena in the development process, such as the asynchronous meiosis of microspore mother cells, the appearance of double embryo sacs in ovules, stamens can eventually form normal male gametophytes and the low frequency of double embryo sacs in pistils does not affect the fusion of male and female gametophytes.The microspores of Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp. were mature before the anther dehiscence, and the pollen of the previous period of anther dehiscence could be selected for cross breeding. The bundle-shaped calcium oxalate needles observed in anther wall and ovary wall cannot be used as the basis for species identification of Polygonatum kingianum.
    2024,44(5):824-831   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230341
    Abstract:
    [Objective] Pterocymbium macranthum Kosterm., a tropical deciduous giant tree, has recently been spotted in the border regions of China and Laos, the genus Pterocymbium R. Br. and species are new to China. The remarkable discovery is reported and suggestions for conservation are provided in the present study. Historically, the tree is only recorded in Southcentral Myanmar to Northern and Southwestern Thailand, the new record in China extends the known geographical range of P. macranthum to the northern edge of the Asian tropics and contributes to the knowledge of the tree flora both in China and Southeast Asia. [Methods] Morphological and anatomical observations of female specimens were conducted using a stereomicroscope, key taxonomic characteristics were recorded with a digital camera, and then descriptions of the genus were amended. Aided by drones, its domestic population size had been rapidly assessed, and its IUCN species threatened category was evaluated by interviewing the usage and timber trade of locals, together with our field experiences of Southeast Asia. [Results] Around 1 000 individuals were recognized in an area ca. 2 000 hm2, and it was evaluated as an IUCN vulnerable (VU) species. [Conclusion] The genus Pterocymbium R. Br. and its intragenus P. macranthum Kosterm. are both new to China.
    2024,44(5):832-835   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230633
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The study aimed to investigate the current status of algal diversity in the Yangtze River Basin, systematic sampling work was carried out in the region. [Methods] Diatom samples were subjected to light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. [Results] One new Chinese record species (Livingstonia palatkaensis Prasad & Nienow) was found in diatom samples from Jin ''e Mountain in Yueyang City, Hunan Province, this genus is also the first to be discovered in China. [Conclusion] The discovery of this new record species provides new information on the geographical distribution of this genus and enriches the biodiversity of diatoms in China.
    2024,44(5):836-844   DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.20230727
    Abstract:
    [Objective] Grape is an important cash crop in China, and aroma is an important component of grape fruit quality. Grape aroma is complex and composed of a variety of compounds, including terpenes, volatile aliphatic compounds, aromatic compounds, pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds. At the same time, it is affected by multiple factors. Genetics is the main factor affecting its aroma distribution. Therefore, the analysis of grape aroma genetic model is the basis of achieving breeding goals. [Reviews] Based on the review of grape aroma measurement methods, this paper summarized and analyzed the genetic rules of grape aroma traits and QTL mapping of grape aroma traits. [Prospect]This paper in order to lay a theoretical support for the analysis of grape aroma genetic rules in the future and provide a reference for grape aroma traits directional breeding.
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    Available online:May 28, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The study aimed to understand the actual distribution of the species of Schistochila in Guangxi, should not only add new data for the study of bryophytes in Guangxi, but also add necessary basic data for the protection of bryophyte diversity in China. [Methods] Through the recent field survey and checking specimens of Schistochila from Guangxi Herbarium (IBK), the species diversity were determined by morphological observation and relevant literature review. [Results] Ten specimens of Schistochila from Guangxi were found, and three species of Schistochila in Guangxi were finally confirmed, namely, Schistochila aligera (Nees & Blume) J.B. Jack & Steph., S. blumei (Nees) Trevis. and S. sciurea (Nees) Schiffn. [Conclusion] Schistochilaceae and Schistochila were here reported as new records to Guangxi at the levels of family and genus, respectively. Here, Schistochila sciurea was firstly reported to bryoflora of China. Detailed description of Schistochila sciurea and main diagnostic characters of S. aligera and S. blumei were provided based on the studied specimens. Each species was also accompanied by vouchers, distribution information and a color plate.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The purpose of this research is to investigate the species diversity of Mount Kunyu in Shandong Province and further identify its species composition and distribution. 【Methods】 Morphological, anatomical, chemical characters and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences were used in this research. 【Results】 Three lichens species new to China, Lepraria harrisiana Lendemer, Leprocaulon nicholsiae Lendemer & E. Tripp, Brownliella kobeana (Nyl.) S.Y. Kondr., K?rnefelt, A. Thell, Elix, Jung Kim, A.S. Kondr. & Hur, were discovered during a taxonomical study of the lichens from Mount Kunyu, Shandong Province. Descriptions in details and morphological photographs of these three species are provided. Specimens examined are deposited in SDNU (Lichen Section of Botanical Herbarium, Shandong Normal University). 【Conclusion】This research shows high species diversity of lichens in Mount Kunyu.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to explore the role of 1-deoxy-D-xylo-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in the synthesis of monoterpenes in lilac (Syringa oblata), and to provide effective genetic resources and theoretical basis for floral fragrance molecular breeding of lilac. [Methods] Firstly, the SoDXR gene was cloned. Then, bioinformatics and subcellular localization were analysis, and qRT-PCR was used to analyze the gene expression patterns in different floral development stages and tissues. Finally, transient overexpression of SoDXR in the petals of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) was detected. [Results] The open reading frame (ORF) of SoDXR was 1425bp encoding 474 amino acids. SoDXR protein contains conserved domain of DXP_reductoisom, and has a similarity of up to 95% with Osmanthus fragrans and Olea europaea. Subcellular localization indicated that the protein was mainly located in the plastids, consistent with the software prediction results. Accompanied by flowering, the expression levels of SoDXR increased and then decreased, with the highest expression level in the initial openning stage. The SoDXR was differentially expressed in various tissues with the highest expression in petal and lowest in stem. Transient overexpression revealed that the expression level of SoDXR gene was significantly higher than that of control. Moreover, the main floral volatile components in snapdragon petals, myrcene and ocimene, were significantly increased by 15.03 and 4.83 times, respectively. [Conclusion] The SoDXR gene positively regulates the synthesis of monoterpenes in lilac, and SoDXR gene may play an important role in the synthesis of floral fragrance secondary metabolites.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】To study the effects of drought stress on the distribution and stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in different organs of Pinus yunnanensis seedlings.【Methods】The 1-year seedling of Pinus yunnanensis was used as experimental material, and four water treatments were set, that is, the relative water content of soil was controlled at 90%±5%(CK), 75%±5%(mild drought), 60%±5%(moderate drought) and 45%±5%(severe drought), respectively. The contents of C, N and P in leaves, stems, coarse roots and fine roots of Pinus yunnanensis seedlings under drought stress were determined, and the stoichiometric characteristics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were analyzed. 【Results]】(1) Compared with the appropriate water treatment, the C content in leaves, stems and fine roots of Pinus yunnanensis seedlings decreased under drought stress, but increased in coarse roots. N content decreased in coarse roots and increased in fine roots. P content increased in leaves and decreased in stems. C:N increased first in coarse roots and then decreased in fine roots. C:P decreased in leaves; N:P decreased in leaves and increased in stems. (2) The order of variability of each element content was P > N > C. The variability of C content in leaves and stems was small and the degree of variation was weak, and the variability in fine roots was the largest; The variability of N content and C:N was the largest in fine roots. The variability of P content was the largest in leaves and the smallest in coarse roots. C:P variability is the largest in the stem, N:P variability is the largest in the stem and the smallest in the coarse root. (3) There was no significant correlation between the contents of C and P in leaves, stems, coarse roots and fine roots; there was a significant negative correlation between the contents of N in leaves and coarse roots, and a significant positive correlation between the contents of N in stems and fine roots. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the contents of N and P in stems and coarse roots.【Conclusion】The results showed that the growth of Pinus yunnanensis seedlings was restricted by N element, and the utilization efficiency of N and P increased with the increase of drought stress. The overall variability of C, N and P contents in coarse roots and fine roots of Pinus yunnanensis seedlings was higher than that in leaves and stems, and the root system was more sensitive to soil water environment.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study aims to ascertain the bamboo resources in Guizhou, to supplement and enrich the existing bamboo materials, as well as to provide a certain basis for the subsequent planning and development of bamboo industry. 【Methods】 Field investigations in the way of "surface" and "point" combination were carried out to collect and identify the specimens, as well as access of relevant reference data was sorted out to obtain genera and species of the bamboo that had never been recorded before. 【Results】 A genus and six species of newly recorded bamboo were found. The corresponding newly recorded genus was Schizostachyum species, and six newly recorded species were Schizostachyum pseudolima McClure, Bambusa funghomii McClure, Yushania longshanensis D. Z. Li & X. Y. Ye, Y. polytricha Hsueh et Yi, Y. pauciramificans Yi, Y. punctulata Yi. Report it now. 【Conclusion】 The discovery of these newly recorded genera and species in Guizhou expanded the distribution range and enriched the diversity of bamboo plants in Guizhou.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The purpose of the research was to explore the evolutionary pattern of chloroplast genome in the Elaeagnaceae, and in turn provide a scientific basis for species identification and resource exploitation of Elaeagnaceae. 【Methods】 This study assembled four chloroplast genomes from the species of Hippophae and Shepherdia, and compared the gene composition, repeats, and structural properties of them with those genomes previously published for plants of Elaeagnaceae. Subsequently, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequences of all these chloroplast genomes. The promising sites for DNA barcoding of Elaeagnaceae were identified in the chloroplast genomes by examining the highly divergent regions. 【Results】 It was found that chloroplast genomes of each genus of Elaeagnaceae exhibited a significant degree of similarity in terms of tetrad structure, gene number and organization. Moreover, it was demonstrated that both IR regions and repeats of Hippophae and Shepherdia species tended to expand and increase more than those of Elaeagnus species. The phylogenetic tree based on chloroplast genomes from eighteen species of Elaeagnaceae showed that all plants of Elaeagnus were grouped into a branch that exhibited an early differentiation, and all plants from Hippophae and Shepherdia were classified into another branch, with a most recent common ancestry. A total of three potential DNA barcoding regions were examined in this study and the identification effect of ycf1 gene was the best. Topology of the phylogenetic tree constructed based on sequences derived from these regions were found congruent with that obtained from analyzing the whole chloroplast genomes. 【Conclusion】 This study revealed that the chloroplast genome structure of the Elaeagnus family had a conservative pattern. The IR regions and repeated sequence of the chloroplast genome have extended and increased with the evolution of Elaeagnaceae. The DNA barcoding candidates in this study exhibited strong discriminatory abilities in differentiating variations from inter-genus of Elaeagnaceae, and inter-species of Elaeagnus, as well.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of photosynthetic midday depression breaking by water spraying, the effects of continuous spraying on mango leaves were studied by omics technology. This study can provide scientific basis for further optimizing water management to achieve the best results, , and will have theoretical significance for improving mango yield and quality by responding to the national policy of reducing fertilizer and increasing efficiency. 【Methods】 The mango cultivar "Tainong No. 1" in Yuanjiang was used as the experimental material. The mango in the fruiting stage was sprayed by water for three times during the photosynthesis midday depression (12:30-14:10), 20 minutes each time, with no water spraying as the control. Then the leaves collected from treatment and control were conducted for transcriptome sequencing analysis by The Illumina Hi SeqTM 2000. The gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases were used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two groups. Differential analysis of gene expression was conducted by using DESeq, with |log2αFC| >1 and P<0.05 as the conditions for screening the DEGs. 【Results】 3 789, 2 885, and 1 667 differentially expressed genes were obtained separately from three development stages. GO analysis found that the DEGswere highly correlated with the membrane, intrinsic components of the membrane, components of the membrane and other items in the classification of cell components. KEGG analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, plant MAPK signal pathway, plant circadian rhythm, metabolism of amino sugar and nucleotide sugar, flavonoid biosynthesis, photosynthetic biological carbon fixation, biosynthesis of cutin, sulfite and wax, metabolism of porphyrin and chlorophyll, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glyceride metabolism. According to the enrichment results, eight differentially expressed genes were screened. Through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) verification, the gene expression trend was roughly consistent with the results of RNA-seq. 【Conclusion】The delayed expression of CAO and POR genes suggests that water spraying can prolong the synthesis time of chlorophyll; the gene expression of FBPase and SBPase slightly decreased, suggesting that the spraying treatment might regulate the expression of genes and relieve the midday depression of photosynthetic, which may be beneficial to the carbon assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The aims of the study is to know the origin and development process of adventitious roots of Aronia melanocarpa cutting, and reveal its cutting rooting mechanism. 【Methods】 Taking the semi-lignified cuttings of 'Fukangyuan No.1' as the research material, the changes in internal structure and external morphology of cuttings during the formation of adventitious roots were observed by hydroponic cutting technology and paraffin section method. 【Results】 The results showed that under hydroponic conditions, the rooting period of IBA treated cuttings was 30-40 d. During the cutting process, adventitious roots appeared at 10-15 d at the lenticel, and adventitious roots appeared at 15-20 d at the cuttings incision, the rooting speed, number and root length were better than the control. The number of adventitious roots in the cuttings was the largest and the rooting was fast. Exogenous induction can significantly improve the rooting rate and rooting quality. There was no latent root primordium in the cuttings before cutting, and the adventitious root primordium was formed after cutting. The adventitious roots were formed into callus rooting type and internal meristem rooting type. Adventitious roots produced in the bark originated from vascular cambium and phloem parenchyma cells or cortex; the adventitious roots produced by the callus are specialized by the parenchymal cells in the callus; leaf gap or branch gap is the main area for the formation of adventitious root primordium and callus formation. [Conclusion] The cutting rooting belongs to the multi-site occurrence mode and belongs to the induced rooting type.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Sagittaria trifolia is an important horticultural and cash crop in China. Identification of genome size and conducting karyotype analysis are essential for genome research and molecular genetics of S. trifolia. At this stage, the genome size of the S. trifolia. and chromosome morphology's are still unclear, the present study with a view to provide more cytological references to S. trifolia. breeding and species evolution. 【Methods】The study was conducted using flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation and with reference to the lysate formulation, probe configuration, to identify the genome size of the root tips of S. trifolia. arietinum variety 'Zijinxing' (ZJX) and to analyze and observe the chromosome morphology of the root tips.【Results】 (1) The tested cecropia was a diploid plant, and the genome of 'Zijinxing' cecropia was about 16 Gb. (2) Using DAPI fluorescence staining, the number of chromosomes was obtained to be stable and in perfect agreement with the results of telomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization, which were all 22, and the chromosome types were middle mitotic (metacentric chromosome), near-middle mitotic (submetacentric chromosome), and proximal mitotic (acrocentric chromosome), with the largest number of proximal mitotic and no follower was found; and the formula for the karyotype was 2n=2x=22=6m+4sm+12st, which belonged to the Stebbins type. The karyotype formula was 2n=2x=22=6m+4sm+12st, which belonged to type 3B of Stebbins type, and the karyotype asymmetry coefficient was 99.13. 【Conclusion】 The study concluded that the genome of S. trifolia. was of medium size, with a highly asymmetric karyotype and a high degree of evolution.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The study aims to investigate the morphological adaptation characteristics of tree peonies growing in different habitats to the environment of the plains, and to provide references for research on conservation measures of tree peonies and screening of excellent germplasm resources. 【Methods】The Central Plains tree peonies (Paeonia ostii 'Fengdan' and 'Luoyanghong')and wild tree peonies(P. delavayi Franch,P. potanini,P. ludlowii,P. lutea Franch,P. lutea and P. qiui)in different habitats were used as experimental materials, and the anatomical structure of the leaves was observed by paraffin section technique and the relevant indexes were determined and analyzed. 【Results】(1)The upper and lower epidermal cells of the leaves of the Central Plains tree peonies and the wild tree peonies were irregularly shaped, the stomata were uniformly distributed in the lower epidermis, and the morphology of the leaf epidermis showed different degrees of variability. (2)The leaves of both the Central Plains tree peonies and the wild tree peonies were heterofacial, and there were significant differences in the anatomical structure and photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves of different tree peonies. P. ludlowii has characteristics of wet plants, such as relatively thin leaf blade and cuticle, undeveloped fenestrated tissues, large cell gaps and maximum stomatal density; P. lutea has the greatest thickness of leaf blade, fenestrated tissues and spongy tissues, and shows strong adaptability to the high temperature and partial aridity of the plain habitat. (3)There were highly significant positive correlations between leaf thickness and upper epidermal thickness, fence tissue thickness, and spongy tissue thickness. There were highly significant positive correlations between stomatal long axis, stomatal index and traits such as fence tissue thickness and leaf thickness. 【Conclusion】All the germplasm of wild tree peonies except P. ludlowii is well adapted to the high-temperature and arid plains habitats, and the indicators of wet structure and photosynthetic pigment content of P. ludlowii can be the main reason why it cannot be cultivated in the plains.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Northern Hengduan Mountains are shaped like a huge funnel, which add to the flora and vegetation diversity. The study aims to better understand flora diversity and vegetation structure of the North edge of the Hengduan Mountain, we conducted the investigation in Northern Hengduan Mountains from June to August 2023. 【Methods】 In this study, plants were collected and photographed through field investigation, made into specimens, and sorted out and identified. The voucher specimens for each reported species were preserved in the Herbarium of Yibin University(GAO20230801-20). 【Results】 Eight species, Ephedra minuta Florin(Ephedraceae), Caragana korshinskii Kom.(Fabaceae), Rhododendron luhuoense H. P. Yang(Ericaceae) , Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim.(Ericaceae) , Rhododendron orthocladum var. longistylum Philipson et M. N. Philipson(Ericaceae) , Rhododendron nivale Hook. f. subsp. australe Philipson et M. N. Philipson(Ericaceae) , Artemisia capillaris Thunb.(Asteraceae), Chenopodiastrum gracilispicum (H.W.Kung) Uotila(Amaranthaceae) are reported as newly recorded species in Xizang Autonomous Region. 【Conclusion】 The investigation of plants in the border areas of Northern Hengduan Mountains are still insufficient, which should be further strengthened in the investigation of flora and resources in the future. The discovery of new distributed plants is of great significance to the nature of the local flora and the attribution of the regionalization.
    Available online:May 21, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The woody stems of plants are difficult to obtain satisfactory microscopic image in both freehand and paraffin sections due to the high content of secondary vascular tissue, high degree of lignification of cell wall. Microtome cryostat can section the tissue with a certain hardness. It will be one of the effective tools for the section of plant woody stems. [Methods] Some woody stems with uniform texture and high water content can be directly sectioning without chemical fixation by using cryo-sectioning. For stems with hard wood and less water content, after fixation with FAA and other fixation, OCT embedding, (-30)-(-25) ℃ section, and staining with 0.1% toluidine blue staining solution. [Results] The microstructure of the wood stem is relatively complete, the image is clear and rich in color. [Conclusion] The microtome cryostat can be used for microstructure sections of wood stem, combined with toluidine blue staining, which has the advantages of simplicity, efficiency and ease of operation.
    Available online:April 29, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The relationship between species diversity and soil factors in riparian zone is very important to maintain the stability of riparian ecosystem. The purpose of the study was to reveal the relationship between species diversity and soil factors in riparian zone in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, provide some reference and theoretical guidance for the ecological restoration, protection and high-quality development of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River.【Methods】 The study studied the relationship between plant distribution, species diversity and soil factors in the transition zone of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in Henan Province by means of quadrat survey, experimental analysis and CCA ranking. 【Result】 The results showed that: (1)Soil water content, organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus in the transition zone of the middle and lower reached of the Yellow River all belong to moderate variability, and the coefficient of variation of total nitrogen was strong variability, and the spatial distribution of soil nutrients was generally moderately uneven. (2) There was a significant negative correlation between the dominance index of riparian plants and soil total nitrogen (P < 0.05). Soil pH, available potassium and available phosphorus had no obvious effects on species richness index. The evenness index, Shannon-Wiener index and six soil factors did not reach a significant level. (3)The distribution of Polygonum polygonatum, Cyperus capitatum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Echinochloa cristatum and Eclipta prostrata communities was greatly affected by water content. The distribution of Artemisia annua, Ziziphus jujuba, and Populus tomentosa was mainly affected by total nitrogen, and was more distributed in areas with high total nitrogen content. Humulus scandens and Amaranthus retroflexus were greatly affected by available potassium. However, Cynodon dactylon, Xanthium strumarium,Phragmites australis, Setaria viridis, Polygonum persicaria, Vigna radiata and other communities were less affected by soil factors.
    Available online:April 25, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Streptomyces pactum Act12 broth on growth and physiological characteristics of Medicago sativa seedlings under petroleum stress.【Methods】 The effects of different concentrations (0, 1%, 10%, and 100%) of Act12 broth under a petroleum stress level of 3% (W/W) were examined on various parameters including seedling growth, root morphology, photosynthetic characteristics, osmoregulatory substance content, and antioxidant capacity in Medicago sativa. 【Results】 The results demonstrated that exposure to 3% petroleum stress significantly hindered photosynthesis and biomass accumulation of Medicago sativa seedlings, when compared to the control group (CK). Moreover, it resulted in an elevation in malondialdehyde levels, a decrease in soluble sugar and soluble protein content, as well as alterations in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Compared to the absence of Act12 broth, solutions with low and medium concentrations (1% and 10%) effectively mitigated the toxic effects of petroleum stress, with 10% Act12 broth exhibiting the most significant effect. The seedlings treated with Act12 broth exhibited significant enhancements in plant height, above-ground dry weight, underground dry weight, stem tolerance index, root tolerance index, total root length, root surface area, root volume, and number of root tips. Additionally, the levels of MDA decreased by 42.49% and 56.45%, soluble sugar increased by 79.25% and 89.83%, while soluble protein increased by 167.63% and 256.15% in the above-ground and underground parts respectively. Moreover, SOD activity increased by 35.81% while POD activity of roots increased by 57.33%. 【Conclusion】 The fermented liquid with low/medium concentration effectively modulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and osmotic regulation ability of seedlings, resulting in reduced MDA content, enhanced photosynthesis ability, increased biomass, improved resistance, and alleviated the inhibition of oil stress on seedling growth.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var.mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao is an important primitive plant of Astragali radix, and its main planting areas are arid and semi-arid areas in Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Gansu and other places, and irregular intermittent rainfall causes the plant drought and rehydration cycle. Studying the characteristics of metabolites in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus during drought and rehydration is crucial to understand the drought stress mechanism in response to natural intermittent rainfall.【Methods】 In this experiment, the seedlings of annual A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were used as materials, subjected to repeated drought stress and rehydration treatment, measured soil nutrients and their root length and root diameter in potted plants, and analyzed the primary differential metabolites of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus using NMR based metabolomics technology, And conduct differential metabolite screening and metabolic pathway analysis; The content of total flavonoids, total saponins, and polysaccharides in the roots of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus under repeated drought stress treatment was determined using sodium nitrite aluminum nitrate sodium hydroxide method, vanillin acetic acid colorimetry, and phenol sulfuric acid colorimetry. 【Results】 The results showed that (1) A. membranaceus var. mongholicus showed a trend of decreasing root diameter and increasing root length and fibrous root density when facing drought stress. (2) Under drought and rehydration treatment, a total of 42 metabolites were detected in the metabolome, mainly amino acids and their derivatives, organic acids, amines, ammonia compounds, and sugars; Metabolic pathway analysis found that plants mainly affect their amino acid metabolism pathways during repeated drought stress. By increasing the content of aspartate, alanine, glutamate, proline, and arginine, and reducing the content of asparagine, tryptophan, and 4-Aminobutyrate, they enhance their drought resistance. Specifically, the increase in metabolites such as alanine, glutamate, and proline is about 1~3 times greater, Metabolites such as tryptophan and 4-aminobutyric acid decreased by about 1-2 times. (3) Under the first round of drought stress, the accumulation of total saponins in Astragalus membranaceus decreased, while after the second round of drought stress, the production of three active substances, namely saponins, total flavonoids, and polysaccharides, all showed a downward trend. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study indicate that amino acids and their derivatives are closely related to the mechanism of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus in response to water stress, and the plant itself also regulates its secondary metabolites in response to environmental changes.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the double petal trait in roses, we obtained an AG homologous gene RcAGL61 associated with flower development. [Method] qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of RcAGL61 in the flower buds of double-petaled strain and single-petaled strain in Rosa chinensis 'Zhaiye Tengben Yuejihua' × R. chinensis 'Old Blush' population, and RcAGL61 was cloned from double-petaled lines and single-petal lines, and bioinformatics analysis, subcellular localization and VIGS experiments were carried out. [Result] The results showed that:(1) The expression level of RcAGL61 was significantly higher in the five developmental stages of flower of single-petaled strain than that of double-petaled strain, and the expression level was significantly higher in S4-S5 stages than in S1-S3 stages in single-petaled strain. (2) The coding sequence of RcAGL61 was consistent in double-petaled strain and single-petaled strain, with a length of 495 bp and a similarity to the RcAG coding sequence of 30.75%, encoding 164 amino acids, containing a MADS-Box conserved domain, belonging to the MADS-Box gene family. (3) RcAGL61 protein was subcellularly localized in the nucleus. (4) When the gene was silenced by VIGS technique in R. chinensis 'Old Blush', the number of petalized stamens increased and the number of petals increased, while the number of stamens decreased. The number of sepals and pistil had no significant change. [Conclusion] RcAGL61 is involved in regulating the transition between stamen and petal primordium, and affecting the number of petal in roses.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] Dandelion(Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.) is an important medicinal and edible herb distributed commonly in Xizang. To study the contents of total flavonoids, polysaccharides and other sugars, the main pharmacologically active ingredients in different dandelion species and analyze the effect of altitude and slope direction to the content will provide important guidance for the efficient exploitation and utilization of Tibetan dandelions resources. [Methods] Taking the whole herb of 6 species of dandelion, T. eriopodum (D. Don) DC., T. calanthodium Dahlst., T. sikkimense Hand.-Mazz., T. maurocarpum Dahlst. T. grypodon Dahlst., and T. stenoceras Dahlst. grew at different altitudes and slope directions in Tibet's Shergyla mountain as the research materials, contents of total flavonoids and several sugars were measured and analyzed, respectively. [Results] (1) The total flavonoid content of T. eriopodum west slope-3 900 m (80.9 mg/g) was higher than that of the others, and the total flavonoid content of T. sikkimense east slope-2 300 m (29.08 mg/g) was significantly lower than that of the other samples(P<0.05). (2) The total sugar content of T. grypodon east slope-2000 m reached as high as 440.55 mg/g with significantly different from that of the other samples,but T. sikkimense west slope-4200 m was the lowest to 63 mg/g, which was significantly lower than that of the other samples. (3) The highest content of reducing sugar was 61.1 mg/g and the lowest was 35.98 mg/g in all samples, but the difference between different species and different altitudes was not as obvious as total sugar. (4) The contents of polysaccharide in T. grypodon east slope-2 000 m and T. sikkimense west slope-3 000 m were high to above 320 mg/g, while the contents of T. sikkimense west slope-4 200 m as well as 3 900 m and T. eriopodum west slope-3 900 m were below 70 mg/g and significantly lower than that of the other samples. [Conclusion] The total flavonoids and polysaccharides in Tibetan dandelion were high, and had obvious difference among different dandelion species and further showed opposite change trend affected by altitude and slope direction, while the contents of polysaccharides and total sugars showed a similar pattern of change .West slope direction and the higher altitude were benefit to the accumulation of flavonoid usually, while the east slope direction and the lower altitude were benefit to the accumulation of polysaccharide.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] Salt stress is the most important environmental factor affecting wheat germination, growth and production. In order to find out the alleviation effect of biological stimulator of Desmodesmus sp. on salt resistance, growth and physiology of wheat seeds and early seedlings under salt stress, and screening the best applcation concentration can provide a theoretical basis for their application to alleviate the impact of wheat salt stress. [Methods] Through the indoor petri dish cuiture method, wheat seeds grown under 100 mmol/L NaCl salinity stress were treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of Desmodesmus sp. extracts (DAE), and germination and growth parameters were measured after 7 days. [Results] The exogenous addition of DAE treatment alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on wheat seed germination and early seedling growth. It increased the germination rate and leaf water content of wheat seeds under salt stress, promoted the accumulation of biomass, enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, as well as the contents of proline, total soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and chlorophyll, but lowered lipid peroxidation, reduced the content of malondialdehyde and membrane permeability. Under 100 mmol/L NaCl stress conditions, the concentration of 25 mg/L DAE had the best mitigating effect on wheat seed germination and early seedling growth inhibition under salt stress. [Conclusion] By promoting the early germination of wheat seeds, The Desmodesmus sp. cell extracts can improved the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmotic adjustment ability of wheat seedlings, improving the adaptability of wheat seeds and early seedlings to salt stress, and enhancing the salt tolerance of force wheat.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Abstract: [Objective] Study the leaves of Artemisia stolonifera and Artemisia argyi to provide micro morphological data for their identification. [Methods] Digital camera, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope were used to to study the characteristics of leaf veins, leaf surfaces, and powder. [Results] (1) Under strong light background, only the veins at all levels of Artemisia stolonifera leaves can be clearly observed. (2) Glandular trichomes are only distributed on the lower surface of the leaves of Artemisia argyi, and there are a large number of glandular trichomes on both the upper and lower surfaces of Artemisia argyi leaves. (3) Similar to Artemisia argyi leaves, the lower surface of Artemisia stolonifera leaves is also densely covered with T-shaped non-glandular trichomes, and there are two types of apical cells: one is a long spindle-shaped and curved apical cell, with a average length about 1450 μm (Type I); the other type of apical cell is long and thin, flat and twisted, with an average length of approximately 2800 μm (Type II), exceeding 1700 μm of Artemisia argyi leaves. (4) There are fewer calcium oxalate cluster crystal in the mesophyll tissue of Artemisia stolonifera leaves, with a maximum of only 10 μm. [Conclusion] Research found that the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf veins and the presence or absence of glandular trichomes on the upper surface of the leaves of Artemisia stolonifera and Artemisia argyi can be used for rapid identification of the two leaves.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 WRKY transcription factors are involved in regulation of low phosphorus stress in plants. Based on previous transcriptome data of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) under low phosphorus stress, the aim of this study is to isolate FtWRKY28 gene, to predict the structure of the gene and its deduced protein, to analyze the subcellular localization and transcription activating activity of the protein, and to investigate the gene expression patterns in different organs and under low phosphorus stress and hormone application, thus providing a basis for the function identification of the gene. 【Methods】 Specific primer sequences were designed according to the annotated Tartary buckwheat genome database. Reverse transcription PCR was used to amplify the entire coding sequence (CDS) of FtWRKY28 from the root RNA pools generated from Tartary buckwheat stressed by low phosphorus. Bioinformatical tools were employed to analyze the structures of the gene and protein and the phylogenetic relationships of homologous proteins. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to investigate the gene expression patterns. Transient expression system of Arabidopsis proplasts was used to analyze the subcellular localization of the protein. Yeast one-hybrid was employed to analyze the transcription activating activity of the protein. 【Results】 The obtained CDS of FtWRKY28 was 876 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 291 amino acid residues consisting of one conserved WRKY domain with a zinc finger motif of C2H2, thus belonging to the WRKY group II. FtWRKY28 was localized in nucleus, and had transcription-activating activity. The transcript abundance of FtWRKY28 was relatively higher in roots, and was significantly induced by low phosphorus and hormones such as indole acetic acid, gibberellin 3, and 6-benzylamino purine in roots. 【Conclusion】 Taken together, FtWRKY28 possesses basic structural and biochemical characteristics as a putative transcription factor, and may be involved in low phosphorus response possibly by crosstalk of auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin signaling networks.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    【Objective】 The purpose of present study is to clarify the quantitative relationship between the hydraulic conductance of vine stem segments and temperature, and to explore the influence of nods on water transport efficiency and safety. 【Methods】 The water conductivity (K), sapwood specific conductivity (Ks) and percent loss of conductivity (PLC) of internode and single-node stem segments of Vitis vinifera L.× V. labrusca L. were measured by low pressure flow meter method with the temperature range of 0.5-40 ℃, and the differences of water conductivity between the two segments were analyzed. 【Results】 The K and Ks of Vitis vinifera L.× V. labrusca L. stem segment had significant linear relationship with temperature. As temperature raised from 0.5 ℃ to 40℃, the initial conductivity, maximum conductivity, initial Ks and maximum Ks of internode stem increased 154%, 198%, 157% and 200%, respectively. The K and Ks values in internode stem segment were higher than those in single-node stem segment, and the difference increased with the increase of temperature. The PLC of internode stem segment was significantly greater than that of single-node stem segment, while the water conductivity and specific conductivity of single-node stem segment were less affected by temperature than that of internode stem segment. The linear regression equation can be used to predict the K and Ks values at different temperatures. As the K and Ks being tradeoff against the viscosity coefficient of the water at each temperature, it showed no significant difference among the tradeoff water conductivity (K′) and sapwood specific conductivity (Ks′) at different temperatures. 【Conclusion】 The K and Ks of V. vinifera L.× V. labrusca L. stem increased with the rise of temperature, and the node can tradeoff the efficiency and safety of the stem water transport.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the relationship between leaf pigment content and leaf color parameters of tea germplasm resources, 143 tea germplasms with yellow,albino and purple variation in leaf color were selected, and the differences of the values of L*,a* and b* of leaf color parameters and the pigment contents of total anthocyanin, chlorophyll, carotenoid in various qualitative leaves were compared and analyzed.The relationship between leaf pigment content and leaf color parameters were explored through principal component analysis,cluster analysis,correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis to provide the basis for leaf color mechanism of tea germplasms and variety breeding.The results showed that:(1) The content of anthocyanin and a* value in purple tea germplasms were higher, and thecolor of leaves showed purple red.The ratio of carotenoid content to chlorophyll content and b* value in yellow germplasms were higher, and the color of leaves were yellow. The L*value of albino germplasms was higher and the color of leaves were white.In terms of leaf color phenotypic traits, leaf color specific tea germplasms generally clustered into two groups, white and yellow in one group and purple in the other group. (2) The leaf color parameter a* value of leaf color specific tea tree germplasms in tea leaves exhibited a significantly positive correlation with anthocyanin content, while L* value as well as b* value had extremely significant negative correlation with anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and there were a very significantly strong negative correlation between b* value and carotenoid content.Anthocyanin and chlorophyll contributed more directly to the leaf CIEL*ɑ*b* value.In conclusion,ɑ* value can be used as a representative parameter to describe the leaf purple-red traits of leaf color specific tea tree germplasms and b* value to describe the leaf yellow traits of leaf color specific tea tree germplasms.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] In all the plants life-history features, mating patterns may be the most important factor affecting macroscopic evolution. Under uncertain pollination environments, bisexual flowering plants often possess potential self-pollination ability. Given the mating cost of self-pollination, how to balance the two mating patterns, and what is self-pollination strategies are two key issues in deeply understanding the evolution of mating systems. [Methods] To explore the selfing strategies of plants under unstable pollination environments in early spring, we studied the flowering habits, pollinators groups, pollen dispersal dynamics, self-pollen transfer patterns, and mating systems in a natural population of Tulipa sinkiangensis, an early spring ephemeral plant. [Results] (1) T. sinkiangensis bloomed in early or mid-April, with a single flowering period of 5-6 days. They opened during the day and closed at night. The pollen dispersal started from the outer and appears in a zippered order from bottom to top. (2)The pollinators were mainly bees and syrphids. The visiting frequencies were significantly low, with great fluctuation among years, but the fruiting rates were generally higher in natural population. (3) Based on the unstable pollination environment in early spring, a mixed mating system with outcrossing as the main form and partial self-compatibility was presented in the population. The autonomous stamens movement during the closing of flowers in the evening promoted the autonomous self-pollination, and the massive deposition of self-pollen occurred on the 4th day after flowering, accounting for 50.22% of the total autonomous self-pollen deposition amount. It was a delayed self-pollination pattern, although also promoted the occurrence of competing selfing. (4) Under limited pollination, the competing and delayed selfing promoted the pollen deposition in T. sinkiangensis. This mating strategy that combined outcrossing, competing selfing, and delayed selfing flexibly responded to the unstable pollination environment in early spring. It is an adaptation to uncertain pollination services under low temperature conditions in early spring, and also a reproductive assurance strategy for early spring ephemeral plants.
    Available online:April 24, 2024, DOI:
    Abstract:
    [Objective] The study aims to clarify the soil seed bank and seedling regeneration characteristics of Amygdalus ledebouriana in Xinjiang, and to explore the limiting factors affecting the population regeneration of Amygdalus ledebouriana. [Methods] In this study, Amygdalus ledebouriana in the Ta'e Basin of Xinjiang was taken as the research object, and the soil seed bank and seedling regeneration of Amygdalus ledebouriana in Xinjiang were studied by means of field plot investigation, soil sample collection and seedling number and grade statistics under mother plant. [Results] (1) The average density of seeds in the soil seed bank of Amygdalus ledebouriana was 96.45/m2. The complete seed density of the Tuoli population was the highest, and the density of seeds eaten by the Yumin population was the highest, and the insect-eaten seeds only appeared in the Tacheng population. (2) The seeds of Amygdalus ledebouriana were mainly distributed in the litter layer, accounting for 56.29% of the total seeds, S2(0-5 cm) soil layer accounted for 29.07%, S3(5-10 cm) soil layer accounted for 14.65 %, The horizontal diffusion distance of soil seeds is proportional to the slope of Amygdalus ledebouriana. (3) No seedlings were found in the investigated Amygdalus ledebouriana seedlings. Grade I seedlings accounted for 51.13% of the total number of seedlings. Amygdalus ledebouriana seedlings were concentrated in the range of 50 cm from the base of the mother plant. [Conclusion] The distribution characteristics of soil seed bank of Amygdalus ledebouriana were near mother plant and surface, and the characteristics of seedling regeneration were also near mother plant distribution. Under natural conditions, gnawed seeds, insect-infested seeds and niche loss were the main reasons why Amygdalus ledebouriana seedlings cannot germinate and the regeneration of seedlings was limited.
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    2012,32(10):1965-1970, DOI:
    [Abstract] (5146) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.06 M] (36428)
    Abstract:
    RG-8M,early-maturing mutant of late-maturing rape RG-8,was used in the present study.A LEAFY(LFY) homologue gene named BnLFY was cloned from RG-8M with the method of homologous cloning.The full length of BnLFY cDNA was 1 310 bp and contained a complete open reading frame of 1 248 bp,which encoded 415 amino acids residues.As other dicotyledon LFY-like proteins,the deduced amino acid sequence of BnLFY gene had several special regions such as N terminal proline rich region,the central acidic domain,the leucine zipper structure and the lysine and arginine-rich basic region.The result of sequencing indicated that the BnLFY protein shared more than 84% amino acid sequence identity with LFY-like proteins of several cruciferous plants.Transcriptional analysis showed the BnLFY gene expressed constitutively in rape.
    2011,31(11):45-50, DOI:
    [Abstract] (7348) [HTML] (0) [PDF 0.00 Byte] (18025)
    Abstract:
    The morphology and distribution of leaf trichomes of Isodon rubescens were studied using light microscopy. Three morphologically distinct types of trichomes were observed on I. rubescens leaf surfaces: non-glandular, peltate and capitate glandular. The glandular and non-glandular trichomes were present on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Peltate and capitate glandular trichomes comprised one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one head. The head of mature peltate glandular trichomes generally consisted of four secretory cells while that of capitate glandular hairs was composed of two cells. Histochemical results indicate existence of flavnoids in both peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In addition, terpenoids, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes etc., exist in peltate glandular trichomes. Peltate glandular trichomes are probably only site of oridonin accumulation, however, this need direct proof to clarify. High density of peltate trichomes might be considered as an important selection character for the screening of I. rubescens with rich content of oridonin.
    2021,41(2):222-233, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2021.02.0222
    [Abstract] (1653) [HTML] (0) [PDF 14.05 M] (15467)
    Abstract:
    In this study, we studied the relationship between Hetian rose variety (Rosa rugosa ‘Hetian shamomeigui’) and Zizhi rose (R. rugosa ‘Zizhi’), Fenghua rose (R. rugosa ‘Fenghua’) and Damask rose (R. damascena) with molecular data, investigated the phylogenetic relationship of the Hetian rose within genus Rosa, and discussed its hybridization origin. Results showed that: (1) the Hetian rose had unique genetic source. The genetic distance within the Hetian rose (0.017±0.003) was smaller than the distance between varieties (0.029±0.005, 0.024±0.004, and 0.022±0.003, respectively). (2) The phylogenetic tree showed that GAPDH gene clones of the Hetian rose did not mix with the gene clones from other varieties. These indicated that the Hetian rose was genetically diverged from the other three roses, and should be regarded as an unique rose variety. (3) A part of GAPDH clones of the Hetian rose were clustered with four species (R. bracteata, R. laevigata, R. cymosa, and R. banksiae) in Rosa sect. Bracteatae, sect Laevigatae, and sect. Banksiae from China or Southeast Asia, located at basal position of the phylogenetic tree, while other GAPDH clones were clustered with other four European species (R. elliptica, R. sempervirens, R. trachyphylla, and R. abyssinica) in sects. Caninae, Synstylae, and Gallicanae. A total of 19 GAPDH heterozygous loci were detected between the Hetian rose and the above mentioned closely related species, indicating a hybrid origin of Hetian rose. (4) A close relationship between the Hetian rose and 14 European species from sect. Caninae, sect. Synstylae, and Gallicanae was revealed by cpDNA phylogeny and sequence variation analysis. In conclusion, it was proposed that the Hetian rose had a hybrid origin by Chinese and European rose species or varieties. The hybrid parents may be the one or more species in sects. Bracteatae, Laevigatae, Banksiae, Caninae, Synstylae, and Gallicanae. This study provides a foundation for further research on the probable parental species of the Hetian rose.
    2014,34(7):1496-1506, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.07.1496
    [Abstract] (5372) [HTML] (0) [PDF 656.79 K] (13748)
    Abstract:
    Plant anthocyanin is a kind of natural edible pigment,has many advantages:safety,no pollution,outstanding stability;it showed noticeable antioxidant ability,which can prevent cancer and protect the function of the liver,prevention and protection of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and other important nutritional and pharmacological function.Therefore,anthocyanin has important research value and potential applications in food,medicine and health care,horticulture and crop improvement.Here we review recent progresses in biological functions and mechanisms of structural genes and regulator genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis and metabolic pathway,including the anthocyanin biosynthetic,metabolic and accumulative process in plant.Prospective of application prospect and development tendency accumulative processon the anthocyanins genes are elucidated in the end.
    2022,42(3):381-389, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2022.03.0381
    [Abstract] (1191) [HTML] (0) [PDF 11.92 M] (12873)
    Abstract:
    In this study, based on sequence alignment analysis, we cloned the full-length CjMYB1 gene from wild Camellia japonica and performed gene expression analyses in Camellia varieties with different floral colors, which provided a fundamental basis for understanding the function of CjMYB1 underlying the floral color formation during flower development. The results showed that: (1) CjMYB1 gene (GenBank accession: OL347930) was successfully cloned. Its open reading frame length was 879 bp, encoding a 292 amino acids protein with relative molecular weight of 33.17 kD. CjMYB1 is found to be a R2R3-MYB transcription factor and is homologous to the subgroup 7 of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB gene family. (2) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CjMYB1 gene had the highest expression level in the floral buds of wild C. japonica, and had a relatively high expression level in sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, suggesting that CjMYB1 plays an important role of regulating the floral development. The expression level of CjMYB1 gene was higher in red Camellia varieties, but lower in pink, light yellow and white Camellia varieties, suggesting that CjMYB1 gene may play a key role in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. (3) Subcellular localization experiments showed that CjMYB1 protein was located in the nucleus.
    2014,34(9):1916-1926, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.09.1916
    [Abstract] (5189) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.92 M] (7996)
    Abstract:
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of free radicals,reactive molecules and ions that are derived from O2.It is estimated that about 1% of plants-consumed O2 is converted to ROS in various subcellular compartments such as chloroplast,mitochondria,and peroxisome.ROS are well recognized for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial factors,depending on their concentration in plants.At low concentration ROS acts as second messenger in signaling cascades that mediate several responses in plant cells,whereas at high concentration it triggers oxidative damages to biomolecules and even cell death.Equilibrium between ROS production and scavenging is crucial for plants,and monitored by an efficient antioxidative system consisting of both nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidants.This review thoroughly introduced the current proceedings of studies on plant ROS mainly in terms of their types,production sites,roles in signaling and major damages to plant cells,aiming to provide an insight for improving plant resistance to environmental stress through genetic engineering.
    2019,39(3):413-421, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2019.03.0413
    [Abstract] (2517) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.83 M] (7737)
    Abstract:
    Growth regulating factor (GRF) is a plant specific transcription factor family that plays an important regulatory role in plant growth and development. In this study, 11 CsGRF transcription factors were identified in tea plant genome with complete characteristic domains QLQ and WRC. The CsGRF family members contained 3 to 6 exons and were divided into 6 groups based on phylogenetic relationships, which are closer to the grape and kiwi. The transcriptome data analysis of different tissues indicated that the GRF family was highly expressed in the tender shoots. Upstream promoter region analysis revealed a large number of cis acting elements closely related to plant development, hormone and stress response. Fluorescence quantitative detection showed that 10 and 2 CsGRF members were up regulated under low temperature and drought stress, respectively, and CsGRF8 and CsGRF11 responded to both abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the expression levels of 9, 3 and 6 CsGRF genes were significantly different by ABA, MeJA and GA hormone treatments, respectively. This work indicates that the CsGRF family genes are involved in the growth and development and stress response in tea plants, speculating that CsGRF genes may play a role in the stress response relying on the hormone signal transduction pathways.
    2021,41(7):1079-1090, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2021.07.1079
    Abstract:
    Chlorophyll biosynthesis is catalyzed by a series of enzymes. Among them, the chlorophyll synthase (CHLG) catalyzes the synthesis of chlorophyll a and b, the last step of the pathway. In this study, Medicago truncatula (ecotype R108) and Medicago sativa with fall dormancy of 4 or 8 were used. The evolutionary relationship of plant CHLGs and their gene structure were analyzed using bioinformatics; the expression of MtCHLG under light/darkness, abscisic acid (ABA) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment was studied by real time quantitative PCR; the transcript level of MtCHLG was tested in mtcao mutant; and the correlation coefficient between the expression level of MsCHLG and plant height or yield in Medicago sativa was analyzed. The results showed that: (1) CHLGs shared common conserved domains and a relatively uniform gene composition. It seems that several terrestrial plants possess one more CHLG with much longer introns. (2) MtCHLG open reading frame (ORF) of 1 137 bp was cloned encoding 378 amino acids and the protein was highly identical (99.2%) to MsCHLG. (3) qRT PCR demonstrated that MtCHLG was predominantly expressed in young leaves of Medicago truncatula with a light inducible or dark repressed pattern showing a significant increase in the daytime and a continuous decline at night. Moreover, under 100 μmol·L-1 ABA treatment of 2 h, MtCHLG in leaves decreased to about 26% of the control (P<0.05). 5% PEG treatment within 24 h repressed the expression of MtCHLG, which decreased to about 42% of the control (P<0.05) at the end of the treatment. (4) When transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells, the recombinant protein MtCHLG GFP was detected mainly in chloroplasts. (5) qRT PCR showed that in mtcao mutant with no obvious expression of MtCAO, the expression level of MtCHLG was about 44% of the wild type, indicating that MtCAO loss of function resultes in a decrease of MtCHLG, which suggests that MtCHLG is downstream of MtCAO in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. (6) The plant height of the alfalfa accessions with FD of 8 was about 2.5-3.5 times of the ones with FD of 4. The average yield of the former was about 2.1 times of the latter, and the expression level of MsCHLG showed a similar pattern (1.2-1.5 times). According to the correlation coefficient, the expression level of MsCHLG was significantly correlated with both plant height and yield. The findings suggest that MsCHLG transcriptional level might be useful for preliminary prediction of alfalfa yield at early stage, and CHLG may serve as a candidate gene to improve yield of legume forages by breeding.
    2017,37(4):773-781, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.04.0773
    [Abstract] (2773) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.26 M] (7535)
    Abstract:
    Artemisia ordosica is the pioneer plant in the cross areas of wind water erosion in Loess Plateau in China, which plays an important role in the stability of the ecosystems in the regions. We chose the shrub patches as the research objects. Based on the plot investigations in the cross areas of wind water erosion, the static life table was established, survival curves and the function curves derived from the survival analysis were also constructed to evaluate the A. ordosica shrub patch population characteristics. The A. ordosica population dynamics were predicted by a time sequence model. The results showed that: (1) the age structure of the A. ordosica shrub patch was a pyramid, but there were fewer individuals in classes I and Ⅱ than in class Ⅲ; (2) The number dynamics index (V′pi) was close to zero, so the A. ordosica shrub patches were sensitive to environment disturbances; (3) The survival curve of the A. ordosica shrub patch appeared to approach the Deevey Ⅱ type, which indicated that the mortality rate in different size classes was similar; (4) The survival analysis and the time sequence model demonstrated that the lack of young individuals could be the major cause for the decrease of middle size class shrub patches. Therefore, the research suggested that the A. ordosica shrub patch, in Loess Plateau in China, could grow, renew, and adapt well in the cross areas of wind water erosion climate environment, and the population was in stable increasing the situation, which created the water and nutrient condition for the settle and recover of other plants.
    2020,40(9):1539-1548, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2020.09.1539
    [Abstract] (1588) [HTML] (0) [PDF 9.34 M] (6795)
    Abstract:
    To explore the law of leaf color change of Davidia involucrata, we selected pink D. involucrata (pink bracts and leaves) and common D. involucrata (green leaves and white bracts) to compare the anatomical structure and pigment content. The results showed that: (1) two colors of D. involucrata leaves were bifacial leaf, containing a palisade tissue with onelayer neatly arranged long columnar cells and a loosely arranged sponge tissue. The upper epidermal cells of some pink leaves bulged outward, and the total thickness, cuticle, palisade tissue and sponge tissue of the pink were thicker than those of green ones, while the epidermis was thinner. (2) There was no differentiation between palisade tissue and sponge tissue in two D. involucrata bracts. The upper epidermal cells of the pink bracts bulged significantly with the thickening of the cuticle, while the lower epidermis became thinner. (3) The contents of flavonoid and anthocyanin in pink leaves were 1.52 times and 3.67 times that of green leaves. The difference of photosynthetic pigment content between two leaves was not obvious, but the chlorophyll a/b value of pink leaves was significantly lower. The anthocyanin content of pink bracts was significantly higher than that of white bracts, while the flavonoid content of the two was not much different. In conclusion, anthocyanin directly caused D. involucrata leaves and bracts to turn pink, and flavonoid helped the leaves appear pink. The anatomical structure of pink D. involucrata leaves and bracts had changed, which had the higher light energy utilization efficiency and were more suitable for the wet environment.
    2016,36(10):2038-2046, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.10.2038
    [Abstract] (2414) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (6473)
    Abstract:
    Taking Tamarix ramosissima seedlings in the natural flooding area along lower reaches of Tarim River as objects, we analyzed the growth of seedlings and variation of the population under continuous flooding disturbance, and the photosynthetic dynamic responses of seedlings under different flood intensities. Conclusions were as following: (1) the population density of T. ramosissima seedlings under continuous twice strong flooding disturbance, from March 2013 to July 2014, increased firstly, then decreased and increased lastly, but the seedlings’ crown, height and stem diameter decreased firstly, then increased and decreased. (2) The population density of the seedlings increased firstly and then decreased in monitoring area Ⅲ in which the second flooding disturbance was weaker, but its crown, height and stem diameter decreased firstly and then increased. (3) The leaf relative water content of the seedlings decreased firstly with the second flooding disturbance decreasing and then increased. At the same time, the chlorophyll content, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ in the light (ΦPSⅡ), photochemical quenching (qP) of the seedlings decreased, the non photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, but the maximal photochemical efficiencies of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) maintained optimum value. The research means that although the continuous twice strong flooding disturbance could make the population of T. ramosissima seedlings regenerated, it also cause death to a large number of seedlings for flooding. As a result, the population of T. ramosissima seedlings could not form a certain scale. We suggest that we can adopt the strong and weak alternately manner to conduct ecological water conveyance, which can improve the survival rate of seedlings, and make the seedlings to grow stably.
    2014,34(1):196-205, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2014.01.0196
    [Abstract] (4949) [HTML] (0) [PDF 841.68 K] (6006)
    Abstract:
    Melatonin was firstly found in plants in 1990s.In recent years,the related research on it attracted the attention of many scholars.There were many studies focusing on the content detection method of melatonin in plant,and the physiological function of melatonin in plant was also reported recently.Various methods of melatonin determination were employed for plant samples.The analysis methods included RIA,HPLC,GC,HPLC-MS and GC-MS.Among several methods,HPLC-FD and HPLC-ECD were commonly used to quantify melatonin in plants.The content of melatonin varied in different plant species and organs.Higher content of melatonin was found in seeds and flowers.Nowadays,melatonin was shown to act as a plant growth regulator that directs the differentiation of plant cells,tissues,and organs.It also appears to protect plants against environmental stress from heavy metals,UV radiation,and temperature change.However,the mechanism of its function in plants and the exact synthetic site need to be further investigated.The present paper reviewed some aspects of melatonin in plant:detection,biological synthesis and physiological functions.The potential subjects of melatonin in plant were also proposed.
    2016,36(12):2477-2483, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.12.2477
    [Abstract] (2520) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.32 M] (5390)
    Abstract:
    Using postharvest “Red global” grapes as the material, we investigated the effect of four different treatments of control,250 μL/L ozone, 0.3% coatings and the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% coatings on the storage property of grapes, Through the determination of the soluble solids,titratable acid,respiration intensity, hardness, peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), β l,3 glucanase (GLU), chitinase(CHI), malondialdehyde(MDA), total phenol, statistical weight loss and decay. The results showed that the weight loss rate and rot rate of 250 μL/L ozone, 0.3% coatings and the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% coatings was reduced, the activities of POD,SOD, CHI,GLU was promoted, MDA content was decreased and the drop of the total phenol was delayed compared with control group. In conclusion, the combination of 250 μL/L ozone and 0.3% sodium alginate coatings had the best result.
    2017,37(1):171-180, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.01.0171
    [Abstract] (2589) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (5337)
    Abstract:
    This paper discusses the ecological stoichiometric characteristics of plants, litter and soils of urban green plants. The results were as follows: (1) the order of average contents of C, N and P in green plants from high to low as follows arbors>shrubs> herbs, and the contents of C, N and P in same ornamental plants of different organs was differ, which showed leaf>stem>root. (2) The nitrogen absorptivity was significantly higher than that of phosphorus absorptivity of urban green plants (P<0.01), and the nitrogen and phosphorus absorptivity showed arbors>shrubs> herbs, which the nitrogen absorptivity of arbors, shrubs and herbs had a significant difference (P<0.05) and the phosphorus absorptivity had no significant difference (P>0.05). (3) The contents of C, N and P in litter showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the content of P had no significant difference. The contents of C, N and P in soil showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the N/P had no significant difference. The contents of C, N and P in soil microbial biomass showed herbs >shrubs> arbors, which the C/N, C/P and N/P had no significant difference. (4) The contents of C, N and P of plants, litter, soils and soil microbial biomass decreased with the increasing of the temperature of the growing season and increased with the increasing of the annual precipitation, which the absolute value of regression coefficient of P was lower than that of C and N. (5) The contents of C and N in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. The contents of N and P in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. The C/N and N/P in litter had a significant negative correlation. The C/N and N/P in plants and soils had a significant positive correlation. The C/N and N/P in plants, litter and soils had a significant positive correlation. (6) Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the plant height, crown, stem diameter, specific leaf area and leaf area index had a large effect on the contents of C, N, P and C/N, C/P and N/P of plant, litter, soil and soil microbial biomass. The plant height, crown, stem diameter had a negative correlation with specific leaf area and leaf area index, and had a negative correlation with the contents of C, N, P of litter, soil and soil microbial biomass, and had a positive correlation with the contents of C, N, P of plants, while the contents of C, N, P and C/N, C/P and N/P had a positive correlation in litter, soil and soil microbial biomass. This study provides a scientific guidance for restoration of the urban green plants in China.
    2017,37(4):705-712, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2017.04.0705
    [Abstract] (3411) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (5234)
    Abstract:
    Hydroponic culture was conducted to study the effect of different nutritional conditions on the growth of Isoetes sinensis. The paper examined the changing rule of physiological and biochemical characteristics and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the chlorophyll content decreased but other physiological and biochemical indexes including soluble sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline (PRO) content, catalase (CAT) activity gradually increased as N and P concentrations increased in nutrient solution. And the peroxidase (POD) activity increased at the beginning then decreased. Among the photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics, the PSⅡ maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm), PSⅡ effective quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), higher potential maximum relative electron transfer rates (Pm), initial slope of rapid light curve (α) and half starved value of light intensity (Ik) gradually decreased with N and P concentrations increased, while non photochemical quenching (qN) increased. We could conclude that Isoetes sinensis had a better tolerance to the stress of the medium nutrient condition but poor tolerance to the stress under the high nutrient condition with comparatively obvious physiological injury as N and P concentrations increased. The ability of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacity increased, but the photosynthesis capacity decreased with the high nutrient condition, The higher nitrogen and phosphorus could inhibit the physiological activities of Isoetes sinensis, and thus affected its growth. In terms of the possibility that one of the most important factors of endangerment of Isoetes sinensis attributes to the eutrophication water.
    2016,36(4):745-750, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.04.0745
    [Abstract] (3173) [HTML] (0) [PDF 792.27 K] (5097)
    Abstract:
    In order to clarify the effects of different concentrations of manganese(Mn) soaking on photosynthesis, root system, root vigor and biomass of wheat seedling, this paper performed pot experiment at the four manganese gradients of 0 g/L ,0.03 g/L,0.06 g/L and 0.12 g/L,using wheat variety ‘Xinong 979’ as the material. The results showed that:(1)Within the range 0-0.06 g/L of Mn soaking, the photosynthetic pigment, net photosynthetic rate(Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs) and water use efficiency(WUEL) of leaf were enhanced and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) was declined with increasing Mn amount. Among them, the promotion effect of 0.06 g/L of Mn soaking was mostly obvious; when Mn application level was higher than 0.06 g/L, the trend declined in Pn, transpiration rate(Tr), Gs, Ci; (2) Total root length, surface area, root volume, root vigor were the greatest in wheat seedlings under 0.06 g/L treatment, which was showed significant differences to control; (3) The trend of up ground dry weight, root and root shoot ratios in wheat seedlings appeared as single peak curves, which was the greatest under 0.06 g/L treatment. Moreover it showed significant differences to control. In general, appropriate concentration Mn soaking could improve the function of wheat leaf photosynthetic capacity and development of root under seedling stage. However, soaking wheat seeds by higher concentration Mn, would decrease growth of wheat seedling. Therefore in a comprehensive consideration of photosynthetic characteristics,root system and biomass, we propose that the optimal manganese soaking concentration is 0.06 g/L in the local with lack of manganese.
    2016,36(9):1916-1924, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2016.09.1916
    [Abstract] (3927) [HTML] (0) [PDF 901.90 K] (5061)
    Abstract:
    The family Ranunculaceae has played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. However, agreement is lacking on the systematic relationships of many genera within Ranunculaceae. In recent twenties years, molecular phylogenetic studies discovered that previous classifications system based on morphological characteristics were quite difference with the molecular phylogeny. The vast majority of the subfamily defined by morphological traits was not supported by molecular systematic. Besides, several genera determined by morphology, such as, Cimicifuga, Souliea, Hepatica, Pulsatilla, Batrachium etc., were detected to be synonymies according to molecular analysis. At the mean time, molecular systematics studies also established genera in the family, such as, Gymnaconitum etc. Through molecular systematics study, a total of ten genera were reduced, and two genera were established in China. However, the relationships between many groups within Ranunculaceae are still in question. The phylogenetic framework of subfamily. Ranunculoideae and tribe Delphinieae still needs to further study. In the present paper, recent advances in molecular phylogenetics of Ranunculaceae are summarized and some problematical issues within the family are discussed.
    2015,35(3):614-621, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2015.03.0614
    [Abstract] (4062) [HTML] (0) [PDF 703.12 K] (4706)
    Abstract:
    The pollen viability and the daily changes of 2 wild tobacco resources(Nicotiana alata,N.gossei) and 1 cultivar(K326) were measured by TTC method.The receptivity of stigma was measured by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method,and the stigma receptivity changes of different flowering days were measured by pollination test.The reproductive characteristics of 3 tobacco resources were analyzed by estimating pollen ovule ratio(P/O),hybrid breeding index (OCI) and pollination test.The results showed that:(1)The pollen viability of N.gossei(74.9%) was significantly higher than that of K326(52.2%) and N.alata(45.3%),but there was no significant difference between K326 and N.alata.The daily changes of pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources showed bimodal curves,the peaks at 13:00 and 15:00,respectively.Both the lowest daily pollen viability of 3 tobacco resources and the highest daily temperature appeared at 14:00.(2)The stigma receptivity of K326 was significantly higher than that of N.alata’s and N.gossei’s,but there was no significant difference between the 2 wild resources.The optimal pollination periods of different resources were different.Stigma receptivity of N.gossei might maintain highly from before 1 day to after 4 days of flowering day.The optimal pollination period of N.alata was 2-3 days after flowering day,while the optimal pollination period of K326 was from before 1 day to after 1day of flowering day.(3)The reproductive type of K326 was self-compatible,with some outcrossing phenomena.N.alata and N.gossei were mainly outcrossing.But N.gossei was self-compatible,and the self-compatibility of N.alata was poor.The results indicated that the stigma receptivity of wild resources significantly influenced their fecundity.Low seed-set rate of N.alata was mainly due to self-incompatibility,otherwise the lack of effective pollination was the main reason causing low seed-set rate of N.gossei.
    2021,41(1):168-180, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2021.01.0168
    [Abstract] (1751) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.99 M] (4655)
    Abstract:
    The research of plant signal peptides mainly focuses on small molecular peptides. As a key component of intercellular communication, small molecular peptides are mainly involved in signal interference, response pathways, display antimicrobial activity, and interaction with receptor kinases on the surface of cell membranes in the form of ligands, which are enable signal communication between cells. Small peptide molecules are important intercellular signal sensing molecules that are critically involved in regulating growth and development processes and stress responses in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in different organ tissues and developmental stages of plants to coordinate and integrate cellular functions. This review indicates a comprehensive overview of the discovery, structural features, classification system, and functional progress of plant small molecule peptides, and focuses on recent years at home and abroad on the CLE (clavata3/ESR) family of post translational small peptides and Ralf (rapid alkalinization factor) family of cysteine rich peptides, provides basic information for in depth studies of plant small molecule peptides and reference for future research directions.
    2020,40(10):1792-1806, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-4025.2020.10.1792
    [Abstract] (2079) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.11 M] (4574)
    Abstract:
    Plant adaptation to drought environment is a complex biological process, involving cross regulation of multiple signal pathways, in which transcription factors play an important role in regulating resistance to drought. The main transcription factors involved in plant drought stress response are AP2/EREBP, MYB, NAC, bZIP and WRKY. Studies have shown that a single transcription factor can activate or inhibit the transcription of a large number of downstream target genes, and a single target gene is regulated by different transcription factors. The crosstalk between transcription factors is common in plant drought regulation network. This paper summarized the main signal pathways (ABA pathway, Ca2+ pathway and MAPKs pathway) involved in plant response to drought stress, and reviewed the structure and classifications of the above five transcription factors and their regulation of drought stress. Some deep research directions in this area were also put forward.

    Governed by:Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China

    Sponsored by:Northwest A&F University; Botanical Society of Shaanxi Province

  • Editor-in-Chief:Professor ZHAO Zhong
  • Editorial-Director:WEI Qingxia
  • Publisher:Science Press

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  • ISSN:1000-4025
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